Difference between revisions of "COVID-19 testing"

From LIMSWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Created as needed.)
 
(No difference)

Latest revision as of 19:54, 25 March 2020

Laboratory testing for the respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated SARS-CoV-2 virus includes methods that detect the presence of virus and those that detect antibodies produced in response to infection.

The presence of viruses in samples is confirmed by RT-PCR, which detects the coronavirus' RNA. This test is specific and is designed to only detect the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is used to confirm very recent or active infections.

Detection of antibodies (serology) can be used both for diagnosis and population surveillance. Antibody tests show how many people have had the disease, including those whose symptoms were minor. An accurate mortality rate of the disease and the level of herd immunity can be determined from the results of this test.

Due to limited testing, as of March 2020 no countries had reliable data on the prevalence of the virus in their population.[1] This variability also affects reported case-fatality rates.

COVID-19 testing in Busan, South Korea

Test methods

As of 6 March 2020, WHO listed the development laboratories and protocols for detection of virus[clarification needed][2]
Country Institute Gene targets
China China CDC ORF1ab and Nucleoprotein (N)
Germany Charité RdRP, E, N
Hong Kong HKU ORF1b-nsp14, N
Japan NIID Pancorona and multiple targets,
Spike protein (Peplomer)
Thailand National Institute of Health N
United States US CDC Three targets in N gene
France Pasteur Institute Two targets in RdRP

Detection of virus using PCR tests

CDC 2019-nCoV Laboratory Test Kit.jpg
The CDC's 2019-nCoV Laboratory Test Kit
Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testing
Demonstration of a throat swab for COVID-19 testing

Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)[3] the test can be done on respiratory samples obtained by various methods, including nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample.[4] Results are generally available within a few hours to 2 days.[5] The RT-PCR test performed with throat swabs is only reliable in the first week of the disease. Later on the virus can disappear in the throat while it continues to multiply in the lungs. For infected people tested in the second week, alternatively sample material can then be taken from the deep airways by suction catheter or coughing up material (sputum) can be used.[6]

A thermocycler or thermal cycler, also known as a PCR machine

One of the early PCR tests was developed at Charité in Berlin in January 2020 using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), and formed the basis of 250,000 kits for distribution by the World Health Organization (WHO).[7] The United Kingdom had also developed a test by 23 January 2020.[8]

The South Korean company Kogenebiotech developed a clinical grade, PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 detection kit (PowerChek Coronavirus) on 28 January 2020.[9][10] It looks for the "E" gene shared by all beta coronaviruses, and the RdRp gene specific to SARS-CoV-2.[11]

In China, BGI Group was one of the first companies to receive emergency use approval from China's National Medical Products Administration for a PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 detection kit.[12]

In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is distributing its 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel to public health labs through the International Reagent Resource.[13] One of three genetic tests in older versions of the test kits caused inconclusive results due to faulty reagents, and a bottleneck of testing at the CDC in Atlanta; this resulted in an average of fewer than 100 samples a day being successfully processed throughout the whole of February 2020. Tests using two components were not determined to be reliable until 28 February 2020, and it was not until then that state and local laboratories were permitted to begin testing.[14] The test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration under an Emergency Use Authorization.[citation needed]

US commercial labs began testing in early March 2020. As of 5 March 2020 LabCorp announced nationwide availability of COVID-19 testing based on RT-PCR.[15] Quest Diagnostics similarly made nationwide COVID-19 testing available as of 9 March 2020.[16] No quantity limitations were announced; specimen collection and processing must be performed according to CDC requirements.

In Russia, the COVID-19 test was developed and produced by the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR. On 11 February 2020 the test was registered by the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare.[17]

On 12 March 2020, Mayo Clinic was reported to have developed a test to detect COVID-19 infection.[18]

On 13 March 2020, Roche Diagnostics received FDA approval for a test which could be performed within 3.5 hours in high volume, thus allowing one machine to do approximately 4,128 tests in a 24-hour period.[19]

On 19 March 2020, the FDA issued emergency use authorization (EUA) to Abbott Laboratories for a test on Abbott's m2000 system; the FDA had previously issued similar authorization to Hologic, LabCorp, and Thermo Fisher Scientific.[20] On 21 March 2020, Cepheid similarly received EUA from the FDA for a test that takes about 45 minutes.[21]

A test which uses a monoclonal antibody which specifically binds to the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of the novel coronavirus is being developed in Taiwan, with the hope that it can provide results in 15 to 20 minutes just like a rapid influenza test.[22]

Detection of virus using non-PCR tests

US President Donald Trump displays a COVID-19 testing kit from Abbott Laboratories in March 2020

The FDA has approved[23] a new test by Abbott Labs that uses isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology instead of PCR.[24] Since this does not require the time-consuming series of alternating temperature cycles this method can deliver positive results in as little as five minutes and negative results in 13 minutes. There are currently about 18,000 of these machines in the U.S. and Abbott expects to ramp up manufacturing to deliver 50,000 tests per day.[25]

Chest CT scans and radiographs

A March 2020 literature review concluded that "chest radiographs are of little diagnostic value in early stages, whereas CT [computed tomography] findings may be present even before symptom onset."[26] Typical features on CT include bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacificities with a peripheral, asymmetric and posterior distribution.[26] Subpleural dominance, crazy paving and consolidation develop as the disease evolves.[27] A study comparing PCR to CT in Wuhan at the point of origin of the current pandemic has suggested that CT is significantly more sensitive than PCR, though less specific, with many of its imaging features overlapping with other pneumonias and disease processes.[28] As of March 2020, the American College of Radiology recommends that "CT should not be used to screen for or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19".[29]

Human readers and artificial intelligence

A small study showed that Chinese radiologists demonstrated 72–94% sensitivity and 24–94% specificity in differentiating COVID-19 from other types of viral pneumonia using CT imaging.[30] Artificial intelligence based convolutional neural networks have also been developed to detect imaging features of the virus both on radiographs[31] and CT with significantly higher specificity.[32]

As of March 2020, the CDC recommends PCR for initial screening[33] because it has higher specificity than CT.[citation needed]

Detection of antibodies

Part of the immune response to infection is the production of antibodies including IgM and IgG. These can be used to detect infection in individuals starting 7 days or so after the onset of symptoms, to determine immunity, and in population surveillance.[citation needed]

Assays can be performed in central laboratories (CLT) or by point-of-care testing (PoCT). The high-throughput automated systems in many clinical laboratories will be able to perform these assays but their availability will depend on the rate of production for each system. For CLT a single specimen of peripheral blood is commonly used, although serial specimens can be used to follow the immune response. For PoCT a single specimen of blood is usually obtained by skin puncture. Unlike PCR methods an extraction step is not needed before assay.[citation needed]

On March 26, 2020, the FDA named 29 entities that provided notification to the agency as required and are now therefore able to distribute their antibody tests.[34] One test[35] recently approved by the FDA can give a result in 15 minutes. It has a 91% clinical specificity rate and a 99% clinical sensitivity rate, according to a news release. A highly sensitive test rarely overlooks an actual positive. A highly specific test rarely registers a positive classification for anything that is not the target of testing.

In late March 2020, Euroimmun Medical Laboratory Diagnostics and Epitope Diagnostics received European approvals for their test kits, which can detect IgG and IgA antibodies against the virus in blood samples. The testing capacity is several hundred samples within hours and therefore much faster than the conventional PCR assay of viral RNA. The antibodies are usually detectable 14 days after the onset of the infection.[36]

Approaches to testing

Hong Kong has set up a scheme where suspected patients can stay home, "emergency department will give a specimen tube to the patient", they spit into it, send it back and get a test result a while after.[37]

The British NHS has announced that it is piloting a scheme to test suspected cases at home, which removes the risk of a patient infecting others if they come to a hospital or having to disinfect an ambulance if one is used.[38]

In drive-through testing for COVID-19 for suspected cases, a healthcare professional takes sample using appropriate precautions.[39][40] Drive-through centers have helped South Korea do some of the fastest, most-extensive testing of any country.[41]

In Germany, the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians said on 2 March, that it had a capacity for about 12,000 tests per day in the ambulatory setting and 10.700 had been tested in the prior week. Costs are borne by the health insurance when the test is ordered by a physician.[42] According to the president of the Robert Koch Institute, Germany has an overall capacity for 160,000 tests per week.[43] As of 19 March drive in tests were offered in several large cities.[44]

As of 26 March 2020 the total number of tests performed in Germany was unknown, because only positive results are reported. Health minister Jens Spahn estimated 200,000 tests/week.[45] A first lab survey revealed that as of calendar week 12/2020 a total of at least 483,295 samples were tested up to and including week 12/2020 and 33,491 samples (6.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.[46]

In Israel, researchers at Technion and Rambam Hospital developed and tested a method for testing samples from 64 patients simultaneously, by pooling the samples and only testing further if the combined sample is found to be positive.[47][48][49]

In Wuhan a makeshift 2000-sq-meter emergency detection laboratory named "Huo-Yan" (Chinese: 火眼, or "Fire Eye" in English) was opened on 5 February 2020 by BGI,[50][51] which can process over 10,000 samples a day.[52][51] With the construction overseen by BGI-founder Wang Jian and taking 5-days,[53] modelling has show cases in Hubei would have been 47% higher and the corresponding cost of the tackling the quarantine would have doubled if this testing capacity hadn't come on line.[citation needed] The Wuhan Laboratory has been promptly followed by Huo-Yan labs in Shenzhen, Tianjin, Beijing, and Shanghai, in a total of 12 cities across China. By 4 March 2020 the daily throughput totals were 50,000 tests per day.[54]

By March, shortages and insufficient amounts of reagent has become a bottleneck for mass testing in the EU and UK[55] and the US.[56][57] This has led some authors to explore sample preparation protocols that involve heating samples at 98 °C (208 °F) for 5 minutes to release RNA genomes for further testing.[58][59]

On 31 March it was announced United Arab Emirates was now testing more of its population for Coronavirus per head than any other country, and was on track to scale up the level of testing to reach the bulk of the population[60]. This was through a combination of drive-through capability, and purchasing a population-scale mass-throughput laboratory from Group 42 and BGI (based on their "Huo-Yan" emergency detection laboratories in China). Constructed in 14 days, the lab is capable of conducting tens of thousands RT-PCR tests per day and is the first in the world of this scale to be operational outside of China[61].

Production and volume

Number of tests done per day in the United States.
Blue: CDC lab
Orange: Public health lab
Gray: Data incomplete due to reporting lag

Different testing recipes targeting different parts of the coronavirus genetic profile were developed in China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States. The World Health Organization adopted the German recipe for manufacturing kits sent to low-income countries without the resources to develop their own. The German recipe was published on 17 January 2020; the protocol developed by the United States Centers for Disease Control was not available until 28 January, delaying available tests in the U.S.[62]

China[63] and the United States[64] had problems with the reliability of test kits early in the outbreak, and these countries and Australia[65] were unable to supply enough kits to satisfy demand and recommendations for testing by health experts. In contrast, experts say South Korea's broad availability of testing helped reduce the spread of the novel coronavirus. Testing capacity, largely in private sector labs, was built up over several years by the South Korean government.[66] On 16 March, the World Health Organization called for ramping up the testing programmes as the best way to slow the advance of COVID-19 pandemic.[67][68]

Effectiveness

Researchers working in the Italian town of , the site of the first COVID-19 death in Italy, conducted two rounds of testing on the entire population of about 3,400 people, about ten days apart. About half the people testing positive had no symptoms, and all discovered cases were quarantined. With travel to the commune restricted, this eliminated new infections completely.[69] With aggressive contact tracing, inbound travel restrictions, testing, and quarantining, the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Singapore has proceeded much more slowly than in other developed countries, but without extreme restrictions like forced closure of restaurants and retail establishments. Many events have been cancelled, and Singapore did start advising residents to stay at home on 28 March, but schools reopened on time after holiday break on 23 March.[70]

Confirmatory testing

WHO recommends that countries that do not have testing capacity and national laboratories with limited experience on COVID-19 send their first five positives and the first ten negative COVID-19 samples to one of the 16 WHO reference laboratories for confirmatory testing.[71] Out of the 16 reference laboratories, 7 are in Asia, 5 in Europe, 2 in Africa, 1 in North America and 1 in Australia.[72]

Testing statistics by country

In the following chart, the column “Positive/thousand tests” is influenced by the country's testing policy. A country that only tests people admitted to hospitals will have a higher positive per thousand tests than a country that tests all citizens, whether or not they are showing symptoms, other things being equal.

COVID-19 testing statistics

Country or region Tests Positive As of
Tests /
million
people
Positive /
thousand
tests
Ref.
Albania 2,247 333 4 Apr 785 148 [73]
Argentina 7,385 1,265 3 Apr 164 171 [74]
Armenia 3,994 736 3 Apr 1,353 184 [75]
Australia 286,786 5,552 4 Apr 11,291 19 [76]
Australia: ACT 5,328 93 4 Apr 12,486 17 [77]
Australia: NSW 117,633 2,493 4 Apr 14,541 21 [78]
Australia: NT 2,646 26 4 Apr 10,762 10 [79]
Australia: QLD 56,132 900 4 Apr 11,017 16 [80]
Australia: SA 32,037 407 4 Apr 18,289 13 [81]
Australia: TAS 1,800 82 4 Apr 3,369 46 [82]
Australia: VIC 54,000 1,115 4 Apr 8,188 21 [83]
Australia: WA 17,251 436 4 Apr 6,580 25 [84]
Austria 104,134 11,603 4 Apr 11,697 111 [85]
Azerbaijan 30,000 443 3 Apr 3,031 15 [86]
Bahrain 37,996 668 3 Apr 24,210 18 [87]
Bangladesh 2,086 61 3 Apr 13 29 [88]
Barbados 382 45 1 Apr 1,331 118 [89]
Belarus 32,000 362 3 Apr 3,371 11 [90]
Belgium 18,360 1,486 18 Mar 1,594 81 [91][92]
Bolivia 591 97 19 Mar 52 164 [93]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,349 650 4 Apr 1,602 122 [94][95][96]
Brazil 54,824 7,910 2 Apr 261 144 [97]
Canada 317,972 13,912 4 Apr 8,391 44 [98]
Canada: AB 64,108 1,081 4 Apr 14,527 17 [99]
Canada: BC 48,508 1,203 4 Apr 9,491 25 [100]
Canada: MB 11,952 182 3 Apr 8,676 15 [101]
Canada: NB 4,520 91 2 Apr 5,795 20 [102]
Canada: NL 2,333 135 30 Mar 4,475 63 [103]
Canada: NT 833 1 30 Mar 18,551 1.2 [104]
Canada: NS 5,172 127 30 Mar 5,291 25 [105]
Canada: ON 66,753 3,255 2 Apr 4,537 56 [106]
Canada: PE 608 18 30 Mar 3,844 30 [107]
Canada: QC 90,227 6,997 4 Apr 10,568 78 [108]
Canada: SK 12,112 220 3 Apr 10,250 18 [109]
Canada: YT 598 5 30 Mar 14,558 8 [110]
Chile 44,130 3,737 3 Apr 2,314 85 [111]
China: Guangdong 320,000 20 Feb 2,820 1.4 [112]
Colombia 23,706 1,406 4 Apr 491 59 [113]
Costa Rica 3,845 347 31 Mar 769 90 [114]
Croatia 8,352 1,011 2 Apr 2,049 121 [115]
Czechia 74,170 4,362 4 Apr 6,964 59 [116]
Denmark 45,270 4,268 4 Apr 7,635 94 [117]
Ecuador 10,317 3,368 3 Apr 604 326 [118]
Egypt 25,000 865 25 Mar 250 35 [119]
Estonia 19,091 1,018 4 Apr 14,372 53 [120]
Finland 29,000 1,882 4 Apr 5,242 65 [121][122]
France 224,254 54,627 2 Apr 3,346 244 [123]
Germany 918,460 64,906 29 Mar 11,046 71 [46]
Greece 15,961 1,212 30 Mar 1,482 76 [124]
Grenada 18 0 19 Mar 162 0 [125]
Hong Kong 90,000 682 30 Mar 12,028 8 [126]
Hungary 19,424 678 4 Apr 1,988 35 [127]
Iceland 23,640 1,417 4 Apr 64,899 60 [128]
India 79,950 3,113 4 Apr 59 39 [129]
Indonesia 7,896 2,092 4 Apr 29 265 [130]
Iran 80,000 21,638 22 Mar 962 270 [131]
Ireland 30,213 3,235 30 Mar 6,345 107 [132]
Israel 90,394 6,901 2 Apr 9,852 76 [133]
Italy 657,224 124,632 4 Apr 10,896 190 [134]
Italy: Emilia-Romagna 67,075 16,540 4 Apr 15,041 247 [134]
Italy: Liguria 14,087 4,203 4 Apr 9,085 298 [134]
Italy: Lombardy 141,877 49,118 4 Apr 14,102 346 [134]
Italy: Marche 14,472 4,341 4 Apr 9,488 300 [134]
Italy: Piedmont 37,181 11,709 4 Apr 8,535 315 [134]
Italy: Tuscany 47,886 5,671 4 Apr 12,839 118 [134]
Italy: Veneto 133,289 10,824 4 Apr 27,169 81 [134]
Jamaica 442 44 1 Apr 162 100 [135]
Japan 42,882 2,935 4 Apr 340 68 [136]
Japan: Tokyo 3,806 773 3 Apr 273 203 [137]
Kazakhstan 5,093 13 Mar 276 [138][139]
Kosovo 1871 140 4 Apr 1,033 75 [140]
Kyrgyzstan 8,186 107 31 Mar 1,281 13 [141][142]
Latvia 19,380 509 4 Apr 10,094 26 [143]
Lithuania 21,376 771 4 Apr 7,650 36 [144]
Malaysia 49,570 3,483 4 Apr 1,513 70 [145]
Malta 4,462 139 27 Mar 9,040 31 [146]
Mexico 9,481 1,049 28 Mar 75 111 [147]
Montenegro 1,456 201 4 Apr 2,226 140 [148]
Nepal 1,521 9 4 Apr 54 5.9 [149]
Netherlands 46,810 7,705 26 Mar 2,686 165 [150]
New Zealand 33,116 824 4 Apr 6,660 25 [151]
North Macedonia 4,506 430 3 Apr 2,169 95 [152]
Norway 101,986 5,208 3 Apr 19,000 51 [153]
Pakistan 30,308 2,450 3 Apr 143 81 [154]
Palestine 2,519 16 Mar 499 [155]
Panama 7,333 1,317 1 Apr 1,756 180 [156]
Peru 12,669 852 27 Mar 386 67 [157]
Philippines 5,530 3,094 4 Apr 55 559 [158]
Poland 72,901 3,503 4 Apr 1,899 48 [159]
Portugal 52,086 7,443 31 Mar 5,068 143 [160]
Romania 36,092 3,613 4 Apr 1,860 100 [161]
Russia 639,606 4,731 4 Apr 4,359 7.4 [162][163]
Scotland 20,798 3,345 4 Apr 3,825 161 [164]
Serbia 5,008 1,171 2 Apr 719 234 [165]
Singapore 39,000 558 25 Mar 6,838 14 [166]
Slovakia 13,631 471 4 Apr 2,501 35 [167]
Slovenia 27,109 989 3 Apr 12,946 36 [168]
South Africa 50,361 1,505 3 Apr 857 30 [169]
South Korea 455,032 10,156 4 Apr 8,800 22 [170]
Spain 355,000 24,926 21 Mar 7,596 70 [171][172]
Sweden 36,900 4,435 31 Mar 4,306 120 [173]
Switzerland 153,440 20,278 4 Apr 17,904 132 [174]
Taiwan 36,304 355 5 Apr 1,527 10 [175]
Thailand 23,669 1,978 3 Apr 341 84 [176]
Trinidad and Tobago 595 90 1 Apr 436 151 [177]
Turkey 161,380 23,934 4 Apr 1,941 148 [178]
Ukraine 5,040 1,096 4 Apr 120 217 [179]
United Arab Emirates 220,000 1024 3 Apr 22,918 4.7 [180][181]
United Kingdom 173,784 38,168 3 Apr 2,573 220 [182]
United States (unofficial) 1,639,380 305,755 4 Apr 4,994 187 [183]
United States: CA 126,700 12,026 4 Apr 3,207 95 [184]
United States: FL 107 313 11,545 4 Apr 4,996 108 [185]
United States: IL 53,581 10,357 4 Apr 4,228 193 [186]
United States: LA 58,498 12,496 4 Apr 12,583 214 [187]
United States: NY 283,621 113,704 4 Apr 14,579 401 [188]
United States: NJ 75,356 34,124 4 Apr 8,484 453 [189]
United States: MI 40,581 14,225 4 Apr 4,050 351 [190]
United States: TX 63,751 6,110 4 Apr 2,199 96 [191]
United States: WA 87,918 7,591 4 Apr 11,546 86 [192]
Uruguay 1,538 189 24 Mar 443 123 [193]
Venezuela 1,779 143 31 Mar 62 80 [194][195]
Vietnam 75,458 239 4 Apr 784 3.2 [196]

References

  1. ^ Ioannidis, John P.A. (17 March 2020). "A fiasco in the making? As the coronavirus pandemic takes hold, we are making decisions without reliable data". STAT. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  2. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Laboratory testing for 2019-nCoV in humans". www.who.int. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  3. ^ "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-nCoV". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Curetis Group Company Ares Genetics and BGI Group Collaborate to Offer Next-Generation Sequencing and PCR-based Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Testing in Europe". GlobeNewswire News Room. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  6. ^ Drosten, Christian (26 March 2020). "Coronavirus-Update Folge 22" (PDF). NDR. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  7. ^ Sheridan, Cormac (19 February 2020). "Coronavirus and the race to distribute reliable diagnostics". Nature Biotechnology. doi:10.1038/d41587-020-00002-2.
  8. ^ "'Increased likelihood' of China virus reaching UK". BBC News. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020; "PHE novel coronavirus diagnostic test rolled out across UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 30 March 2020; "PHE tells patients with suspected coronavirus to call GP or NHS 111". The Pharmaceutical Journal. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  9. ^ "KogeneBiotech". Kogene.co.kr. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  10. ^ Jeong, Sei-im (28 February 2020). "Korea approves 2 more COVID-19 detection kits for urgent use – Korea Biomedical Review". www.koreabiomed.com (in Korean). Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  11. ^ "ABOUT US | NEWS". www.kogene.co.kr.
  12. ^ "BGI Sequencer, Coronavirus Molecular Assays Granted Emergency Use Approval in China". GenomeWeb. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  13. ^ "International Reagent Resource". www.internationalreagentresource.org.
  14. ^ Transcript for the CDC Telebriefing Update on COVID-19, 28 February 2020
  15. ^ "LabCorp Launches Test for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings.
  16. ^ "Covid19 : COVID-19". www.questdiagnostics.com.
  17. ^ "В России зарегистрирована отечественная тест-система для определения коронавируса". Interfax-Russia.ru. 14 February 2020.
  18. ^ Plumbo, Ginger. "Mayo Clinic develops test to detect COVID-19 infection". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  19. ^ "US regulators approve Roche's new and faster COVID-19 test". ETHealthworld.com. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  20. ^ "FDA Approves Abbott Laboratories Coronavirus Test, Company To Ship 150,000 Kits". IBTimes.com. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
  21. ^ "Sunnyvale company wins FDA approval for first rapid coronavirus test with 45-minute detection time". EastBayTimes.com. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  22. ^ "中央研究院網站". www.sinica.edu.tw. Sinca. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  23. ^ "'A game changer': FDA authorizes Abbott Labs' portable, 5-minute coronavirus test the size of a toaster". usatoday. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  24. ^ "Letter from FDA". FDA. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  25. ^ "ABBOTT LAUNCHES MOLECULAR POINT-OF-CARE TEST TO DETECT NOVEL CORONAVIRUS IN AS LITTLE AS FIVE MINUTES". Abbott. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  26. ^ a b Salehi, Sana; Abedi, Aidin; Balakrishnan, Sudheer; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali (14 March 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients". American Journal of Roentgenology: 1–7. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23034. ISSN 0361-803X. PMID 32174129.
  27. ^ Lee, Elaine Y. P.; Ng, Ming-Yen; Khong, Pek-Lan (24 February 2020). "COVID-19 pneumonia: what has CT taught us?". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 0 (4): 384–385. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30134-1. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 32105641. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  28. ^ Ai, Tao; Yang, Zhenlu (26 February 2020). "Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases". Radiology. Radiological Society of North America: 200642. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200642. PMID 32101510.
  29. ^ "ACR Recommendations for the use of Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography (CT) for Suspected COVID-19 Infection". American College of Radiology. 22 March 2020.
  30. ^ Bai, Harrison X.; Hsieh, Ben; Xiong, Zeng; Halsey, Kasey; Choi, Ji Whae; Tran, Thi My Linh; Pan, Ian; Shi, Lin-Bo; Wang, Dong-Cui; Mei, Ji; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Zeng, Qiu-Hua; Egglin, Thomas K.; Hu, Ping-Feng; Agarwal, Saurabh; Xie, Fangfang; Li, Sha; Healey, Terrance; Atalay, Michael K.; Liao, Wei-Hua (10 March 2020). "Performance of radiologists in differentiating COVID-19 from viral pneumonia on chest CT". Radiology: 200823. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200823. ISSN 0033-8419. PMID 32155105.
  31. ^ Heaven, Will Douglas. "A neural network can help spot Covid-19 in chest x-rays". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  32. ^ Li, Lin; Qin, Lixin; Xu, Zeguo; Yin, Youbing; Wang, Xin; Kong, Bin; Bai, Junjie; Lu, Yi; Fang, Zhenghan; Song, Qi; Cao, Kunlin; Liu, Daliang; Wang, Guisheng; Xu, Qizhong; Fang, Xisheng; Zhang, Shiqin; Xia, Juan; Xia, Jun (19 March 2020). "Artificial Intelligence Distinguishes COVID-19 from Community Acquired Pneumonia on Chest CT". Radiology: 200905. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200905. ISSN 0033-8419. PMID 32191588.
  33. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  34. ^ "The FDA just okayed multiple 15-minute blood tests to screen for coronavirus, but there are caveats". techcrunch.com. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  35. ^ "FDA authorizes Bodysphere 2-minute COVID-19 test". massdevice.com. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  36. ^ Fellmann F. (March 2020). (in German) "Jetzt beginnt die Suche nach den Genesenen". Tages Anzeiger. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  37. ^ "In Age of COVID-19, Hong Kong Innovates To Test And Quarantine Thousands". NPR.org.
  38. ^ "NHS pilots home testing for coronavirus". MobiHealthNews. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020.
  39. ^ jkiger@postbulletin.com, Jeff Kiger. "Mayo Clinic starts drive-thru testing for COVID-19". PostBulletin.com. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  40. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (11 March 2020). "Some states are offering drive-thru coronavirus testing". The Verge. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  41. ^ "South Korea's Drive-Through Testing For Coronavirus Is Fast – And Free". npr. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  42. ^ Nina Weber, Katherine Rydlink, Irene Berres (5 March 2020). "Coronavirus und Covid-19: So testet Deutschland". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 23 March 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ Oltermann, Philip (22 March 2020). "Germany's low coronavirus mortality rate intrigues experts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Covid-19 – Tests auf das Coronavirus: Wann, wo und wie?". Deutschlandfunk (in German). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  45. ^ Charisius, Hanno (26 March 2020). "Covid-19: Wie gut testet Deutschland?" (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  46. ^ a b "Täglicher Lagebericht des RKI zur Coronavirus-Krankheit-2019 (COVID-19)" [Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Daily Situation Report of the Robert Koch Institute] (PDF). Robert Koch Institute (in German). 1 April 2020.
  47. ^ "Pooling method allows dozens of COVID-19 tests to run simultaneously". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Israeli team has coronavirus test kit to test dozens of people at once". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  49. ^ Staff, Israel21c (19 March 2020). "Israelis introduce method for accelerated COVID-19 testing". Israel21c. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Wuhan Test Lab Opens; CDC Ships Diagnostic Kits: Virus Update". Bloomberg. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  51. ^ a b "China virus crisis deepens as whistleblower doctor dies". AFP.com. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  52. ^ 日检测量达万份的"火眼"实验室连夜试运行.
  53. ^ "BGI's Coronavirus Response? Build a Lab in Wuhan". GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  54. ^ "COVID-19 Local Laboratory Solution". BGI – Global. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  55. ^ "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK –seventh update" (PDF). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 25 March 2020. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 29 March 2020. the current shortages of laboratory consumables and reagents affect diagnostic capacity and hamper the epidemic response at the national and local levels. The laboratories have experienced delayed or missing deliveries of swabbing material, plastic consumables, RNA extraction and RT-PCR reagents, and PPE. This is affecting laboratories in all EU/EEA countries.
  56. ^ Baird, Robert P. (24 March 2020). "Why Widespread Coronavirus Testing Isn't Coming Anytime Soon". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020. South Dakota, said that her state’s public-health laboratory—the only lab doing COVID-19 testing in the state—had so much trouble securing reagents that it was forced to temporarily stop testing altogether. also noted critical shortages of extraction kits, reagents, and test kits
  57. ^ Ossola, Alexandra (25 March 2020). "Here are the coronavirus testing materials that are in short supply in the US". Quartz. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020. extract the virus’s genetic material—in this case, RNA—using a set of chemicals that usually come in pre-assembled kits. “The big shortage is extraction kits” There are no easy replacements here: “These reagents that are used in extraction are fairly complex chemicals. They have to be very pure, and they have to be in pure solution”
  58. ^ Fomsgaard, Anders (27 March 2020). "Statens Serum Institut (SSI) solves essential COVID-19 testing deficiency problem". en.ssi.dk. Statens Serum Institut. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. several countries are in lack of the chemical reagents necessary to test their citizens for the disease.
  59. ^ "Danish researchers behind simple coronavirus test method". cphpost.dk. The Copenhagen Post. 28 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020.
  60. ^ Sullivan (now, Helen; Rawlinson, earlier); Kevin; Gayle, Damien; Topping, Alexandra; Mohdin, and Aamna; Willsher, Kim; Wintour, Patrick; Wearden, Graeme; Greenfield, Patrick (31 March 2020). "Global confirmed virus death toll passes 40,000 – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  61. ^ "VIDEO: UAE sets up COVID-19 detection lab in just 14 days". Gulf Today. 31 March 2020.
  62. ^ "PolitiFact – Biden falsely says Trump administration rejected WHO coronavirus test kits (that were never offered)". @politifact.
  63. ^ Heartbreak in the Streets of Wuhan
  64. ^ "State figures on testing raise questions about efforts to contain outbreak". The BostonGlobe.com.
  65. ^ Davey, Melissa (14 March 2020). "Australian stocks of coronavirus testing kits 'rapidly deteriorating', says chief medical officer" – via www.theguardian.com.
  66. ^ "Experts Credit South Korea's Extensive Testing For Curbing Coronavirus Spread". NPR.org.
  67. ^ "'Test, Test, Test': WHO Chief's Coronavirus Message to World". The New York Times. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  68. ^ Reuters, Source (16 March 2020). "'Test, test, test': WHO calls for more coronavirus testing – video". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  69. ^ "How an experiment helped one Italian town find 'submerged infections,' cut new COVID-19 cases to zero | National Post". 19 March 2020.
  70. ^ "COVID-19 outbreak: Petition to close schools in Singapore garners 7,700 signatures to date". www.msn.com.
  71. ^ "National laboratories". www.who.int.
  72. ^ "Specimen referral for COVID-19 – operational details of WHO reference laboratories providing confirmatory testing for COVID-19" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Ministry of Health".
  74. ^ "Reporte Diario Matutino Nro. 39: Situación de COVID-19 en Argentina" (PDF). Argentina.gob.ar (in Spanish). 3 April 2020.
  75. ^ Կորոնավիրուսային հիվանդություն (COVID-19). Հիվանդությունների վերահսկման և կանխարգելման ազգային կենտրոն [National Center for Disease Control and Prevention] (in Armenian). 2 April 2020.
  76. ^ "Covid19 testing by State Australia". 4 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  77. ^ "COVID-19 daily update". ACT Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  78. ^ "Latest Statistics". NSW Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  79. ^ "COVID-19 daily update". NT Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  80. ^ "COVID-19 daily update". QLD Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  81. ^ "COVID-19 daily update". SA Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  82. ^ {{cite web |url=https://twitter.com/Gajafar/status/1246394007845912577 |title=COVID-19 daily update |date=4 April 2020 |website=
  83. ^ "Coronavirus COVID-19 daily update". Victoria Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  84. ^ "COVID-19 daily update". WA Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  85. ^ "Information zum Coronavirus".
  86. ^ "Coronavirus". KoronaVirus Informasiya Portali [Operational Headquarters under the Cabinet of Ministers] (in Azerbaijani). 30 March 2020.
  87. ^ فيروس الكورونا COVID-19. وزارة الصحة [Ministry of Health] (in Arabic). 3 April 2020.
  88. ^ "Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)". www.iedcr.gov.bd. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  89. ^ "COVID-19 Update (1st April, 2020) feat. Acting PM Hon. Santia Bradshaw, M.P". PMOBarbados YouTube ChannelRetrieved April 2, 2020.
  90. ^ "t.me/minzdravbelarus/213". Официальный канал Министерства здравоохранения Республики Беларусь в Телеграм [The official Telegram channel of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus] (in Russian). 3 April 2020.
  91. ^ "Latest News".
  92. ^ "News".
  93. ^ [1]
  94. ^ "COVID-19: Epidemiološka situacija". Zavod za javno zdravstvo Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine [Institute for Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina] (in Bosnian). 3 April 2020.
  95. ^ U Srpskoj sedam novih slučajeva; Ukupno 274 zaražena (VIDEO). Радио Телевизија Републике Српске [Radio Television of Republika Srpska] (in Serbian). 3 April 2020.
  96. ^ U Srpskoj 25 novih slučajeva; Ukupno zaraženo 299 (VIDEO). Радио Телевизија Републике Српске [Radio Television of Republika Srpska] (in Serbian). 4 April 2020.
  97. ^ "Brazil Number of PCR Test".
  98. ^ "Canada Public Health Services".
  99. ^ "Cases in Alberta". Alberta.ca. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  100. ^ "Case Counts & Press Statements". BC Centre for Disease Control. 30 March 2020.
  101. ^ "COVID-19 Novel Coronavirus". Province of Manitoba. 3 April 2020.
  102. ^ "Coronavirus". Government of New Brunswick. 2 April 2020.
  103. ^ "COVID-19 Information". Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  104. ^ Services, Health and Social. "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". www.hss.gov.nt.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Novel coronavirus (COVID-19)". NovaScotia.ca. 30 March 2020.
  106. ^ "The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Ontario.ca. 1 April 2020.
  107. ^ "COVID-19".
  108. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux [Ministry of Health and Social Services] (in French). 4 April 2020.
  109. ^ "Cases and Risk of COVID-19 in Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. 3 April 2020.
  110. ^ "Information about coronavirus disease (COVID-19) for Yukoners". yukon.ca. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Cifras Oficiales COVID-19" (PDF). Ministerio de Salud Chile (in Spanish). 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  112. ^ "Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19)" (PDF). WHO. 10 March 2020.
  113. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID - 2019) en Colombia". Instituto Nacional de Salud [National Institute of Health] (in Spanish). 4 April 2020.
  114. ^ "Gobierno amplía restricción vehicular sanitaria a partir de las 8 p.m. fines de semana". Ministerio de Salud Costa Rica [Ministry of Health Costa Rica] (in Spanish). 27 March 2020.
  115. ^ "Ukupno dosad 790 osoba zaraženih koronavirusom". Koronavirus.hr (in Croatian). 2 April 2020.
  116. ^ "Přehled situace v ČR: COVID-19" [Overview of the situation in the Czech Republic: COVID-19]. Ministerstvo zdravotnictví České republiky [The Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic] (in Czech). 4 April 2020.
  117. ^ Statens Serum Institut (4 April 2020). "Udbrud med ny coronavirus COVID-19" (in Danish). Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  118. ^ "Actualizacion de casos de coronavirus en Ecuador".
  119. ^ https://www.shorouknews.com/news/view.aspx?cdate=25032020&id=913aaaec-a6a9-4e9f-98d0-6a88b6d76fe2
  120. ^ "Statistika koroonaviiruse leviku kohta Eestis". Koroonakaart. 4 April 2020.
  121. ^ "Tilannekatsaus koronaviruksesta" [Coronavirus situation overview]. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  122. ^ United Nations Population Division. "Total population, both sexes combined (thousands)".
  123. ^ "COVID-19: Point épidémiologique hebdomadaire du 2 Avril 2020" (PDF). Santé publique France [Public Health France] (in French). 2 April 2020.
  124. ^ "Ενημέρωση διαπιστευμένων συντακτών υγείας από τον Υφυπουργό Πολιτικής Προστασίας και Διαχείρισης Κρίσεων Νίκο Χαρδαλιά και τον εκπρόσωπο του Υπουργείου Υγείας για το νέο κορονοϊό, Καθηγητή Σωτήρη Τσιόδρα 30-03-2020". National Public Health Organization (in Greek). 30 March 2020.
  125. ^ Straker, Linda (18 March 2020). "Batch of 8 Covid-19 tests negative". NowGrenada. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  126. ^ "HK likely has Asia's highest virus testing rate". The Standard. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  127. ^ "Tájékoztató oldal a koronavírusról". Tájékoztató oldal a koronavírusról [Coronavirus Information Page] (in Hungarian). Cabinet Office of the Prime Minister. 4 April 2020.
  128. ^ "COVID-19 in Iceland – Statistics". Covid.is. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  129. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Testing: Status Update 04 April 2020 9:00 PM IST" (PDF). ICMR India. 4 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  130. ^ "Infeksi Emerging". Infeksi Emerging (in Indonesian). 4 April 2020.
  131. ^ "Iran Victorious in Controlling Corona Outbreak Despite Sanctions: Official". 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  132. ^ "Statement from the National Public Health Emergency Team - Tuesday 31 March". Government of Ireland. 31 March 2020.
  133. ^ "t.me/MOHreport/3404". Coronavirus updates from the Ministry of Health of Israel on Telegram. 25 March 2020.
  134. ^ a b c d e f g h "Aggiornamento 04/04/2020 ore 17.00" (PDF). Dipartimento della Protezione Civile. 4 April 2020 – via GitHub.
  135. ^ 44 coronavirus cases now confirmed in JamaicaRetrieved April 2, 2020.
  136. ^ 新型コロナウイルス感染症の現在の状況と厚生労働省の対応について(令和2年4月4日版). 厚生労働省 [The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare] (in Japanese). 4 April 2020.
  137. ^ "Latest updates on COVID-19 in Tokyo". Tokyo COVID-19 Information. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 3 April 2020.
  138. ^ "Kazakhstan orders 100,000 COVID-19 test systems". AKIpress. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  139. ^ "7 new COVID-2019 cases confirmed in Nur-Sultan; total number rises to 44 - Ministry of Health". Interfax. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  140. ^ "Ministry of Health Kosovo".
  141. ^ "Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic briefing". 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  142. ^ "About quality using COVID-19 express-tests". Akipress. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  143. ^ "COVID-19 infekcijas uzliesmojums" [Outbreak of COVID-19 infection]. Slimību profilakses un kontroles centrs [Center for Disease Prevention and Control] (in Latvian). 4 April 2020.
  144. ^ "Koronavirusas (COVID-19)". Lietuvos Respublikos sveikatos apsaugos ministerija [The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Lithuania] (in Lithuanian). 2 April 2020.
  145. ^ "COVID-19 (Maklumat Terkini)". Portal Rasmi Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia [Official Portal of Ministry of Health of Malaysia] (in Malay). 4 April 2020.
  146. ^ Borg, Bertrand (27 March 2020). "As it happened: Lockdown confusion as Malta reaches 139 coronavirus cases". Times of Malta.
  147. ^ "Comunicado Técnico Diario Nuevo Coronavirus en el Mundo (COVID-19)". Government Of Mexico. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  148. ^ "U Crnoj Gori je od početka dešavanja, od COVID19 oboljelo 140 osoba". Institut za javno zdravlje Crne Gore (in Montenegrin). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  149. ^ "Health Emergency Operation Center". Health Emergency Operation Center. 27 March 2020.
  150. ^ "Virologische dagstaten". Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [The Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment] (in Dutch). 26 March 2020.
  151. ^ "COVID-19 - current cases". Ministry of Health. 4 April 2020.
  152. ^ "ПОТВРДЕНИ 46 НОВИ СЛУЧАИ ПОЗИТИВНИ НА КОВИД-19, ВКУПНАТА БРОЈКА НА ДИЈАГНОСТИЦИРАНИ ИЗНЕСУВА 430 ЛИЦА, НА ИНФЕКТИВНАТА КЛИНИКА ПОЧИНАА 2 ЛИЦА – 3 ОЗДРАВЕНИ ПАЦИЕНТИ ЗАМИНУВААТ ДОМА". Ministry of Health of North Macedonia (in Macedonian). 3 April 2020.
  153. ^ "Status koronasmitte fredag 3. april 2020". Norwegian Institute of Public Health. 3 April 2020. line feed character in |website= at position 24 (help)
  154. ^ "Daily Situation Report – Pakistan: COVID-19" (PDF). National Institute of Health. 3 April 2020.
  155. ^ Palestine Ministry of Health (16 March 2020). "UPDATE on coronavirus (#COVID19) testing in the PS".
  156. ^ "Panamá confirma 32 defunciones y acumula 1,317 casos de coronavirus" (in Spanish). Telemetro. 1 April 2020.
  157. ^ "Coronavirus en el Perú". gob.pe (in Spanish). 29 March 2020.
  158. ^ https://www.doh.gov.ph/2019-nCoV/
  159. ^ "W ciągu doby wykonano ponad 5.9 tys. testów na #koronawirus". Ministerstwo Zdrowia (Twitter) [Ministry of Health (Twitter)] (in Polish). 4 April 2020.
  160. ^ "Ponto de Situação Atual em Portugal" [Current Situation in Portugal]. Direção-Geral da Saúde [The Directorate-General of Health] (in Portuguese). 31 March 2020.
  161. ^ "Buletin informativ 04.04.2020". Ministerul Sanatatii [Ministry of Health] (in Romanian). 4 April 2020.
  162. ^ О подтвержденных случаях новой коронавирусной инфекции COVID-2019 в России. Роспотребнадзор [The Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing] (in Russian). 4 April 2020.
  163. ^ Информационный бюллетень о ситуации и принимаемых мерах по недопущению распространения заболеваний, вызванных новым коронавирусом. Роспотребнадзор [The Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing] (in Russian). 4 April 2020.
  164. ^ "Coronavirus in Scotland". The Scottish Government.
  165. ^ Informacije o novom korona virusu 02.04. u 15 časova. Министарство здравља Републике Србије [The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia] (in Serbian). 2 April 2020.
  166. ^ "Singapore's strategy in fighting Covid-19". The Straits Times. 25 March 2020.
  167. ^ "Koronavírus na Slovensku". Koronavírus (in Slovak). National Health Information Center. 4 April 2020.
  168. ^ "Dnevno spremljanje okužb s SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)". Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje [National Institute of Public Health] (in Slovenian). 3 April 2020.
  169. ^ "COVID-19 Statistics in RSA 3 April 2020". NICD. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  170. ^ 코로나바이러스감염증-19 국내 발생 현황(4월 4일, 0시 기준). 질병관리본부 [Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] (in Korean). 4 April 2020.
  171. ^ Clara, Pinar (18 March 2020). "Sanidad dice que ya se han realizado 350.000 tests de coronavirus y espera la llegada de hasta un millón de pruebas rápidas". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  172. ^ "Situación de COVID-19 en España". covid19.isciii.es. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  173. ^ "Sweden Public Health Service".
  174. ^ "Coronavirus Krankheit 2019 (COVID-19): Situationsbericht zur epidemiologischen Lage in der Schweiz und im Fürstentum Liechtenstein" (PDF). Bundesamt für Gesundheit [The Federal Office of Public Health] (in German). 4 April 2020.
  175. ^ "Taiwan Centers for Disease Control". Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. 5 April 2020.
  176. ^ โรคติดเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนา 2019 (COVID-19). กรมควบคุมโรค [Department of Disease Control] (in Thai). 30 March 2020.
  177. ^ Trinidad and Tobago Covid-19 Update #65Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  178. ^ "covid19.saglik.gov.tr". Sağlık Bakanlığı [The Ministry of Health] (in Turkish). 4 April 2020.
  179. ^ Оперативна інформація про поширення коронавірусної інфекції COVID-19. Міністерство охорони здоров'я України [The Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine] (in Ukrainian). 4 April 2020.
  180. ^ "UAE Government Press Release on Testing". Official Emirates News WAM. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  181. ^ UAE Ministry of Health. "Ministry of Health Tweet on Total Cases". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  182. ^ "UK Covid-19 Information".
  183. ^ "Most Recent Data". The COVID Tracking Project. 4 April 2020.
  184. ^ "State Officials Announce Latest COVID-19 Facts". California Department of Public Health. 4 April 2020.
  185. ^ "Florida's COVID-19 Data and Surveillance Dashboard". Florida Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  186. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Illinois Department of Public Health. 4 April 2020.
  187. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Louisiana Department of Public Health. 4 April 2020.
  188. ^ "Tracking COVID-19 coronavirus in New York State". 4 April 2020.
  189. ^ "Tracking COVID-19 coronavirus in New Jersey". 4 April 2020.
  190. ^ "Michigan Data". Michigan.gov. 4 April 2020.
  191. ^ "COVID-19 In Texas (Dashboard)". Texas Department of State Health Services. 4 April 2020.
  192. ^ "2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak (COVID-19)". Washington State Department of Health. 4 April 2020.
  193. ^ Gobierno informó que hay 27 nuevos casos de coronavirus
  194. ^ "Oficina de ONU indica que Venezuela realizó 1.779 pruebas de covid-19 en 19 días" (in Spanish). El País. 2 April 2020.
  195. ^ "Venezuela: COVID-19 Flash Update Nº 2 (02 de abril de 2020)". Reliefweb. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  196. ^ "Thống kê tình hình dịch bệnh COVID-19". Ministry of Health. 4 April 2020.

External links

Notes

This article is a direct transclusion of the Wikipedia article and therefore may not meet the same editing standards as LIMSwiki.