LII:Past, Present, and Future of Cannabis Laboratory Testing and Regulation in the United States/Final thoughts and resources

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This last section of the guide provides closing thoughts to tie together what was previously discussed. It also provides a directory of cannabis testing, standards, etc. resources for readers wanting to learn more.

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6. Final thoughts

LAB COURSE IN CHROMATOGRAPHY.jpg
This guide has attempted to provide insight into various aspects of the current status of laboratory testing of cannabis in the U.S. By extension, it has required a closer look at many non-testing or tangentially related aspects of cannabis, including history, regulations, standards, methods, equipment, and software. The guide has also attempted to look at the potential future of testing, a more difficult feat that has required inspection of—and speculation on—a mix of statistics and politics, as well as government and social policy and how they may all affect the future of cannabis testing. We learned that many point fingers at the U.S. federal government for being responsible for several cannabis-related issues, including lack of clear government support for cannabis research, lack of standardization of testing and analysis methods for said research, and wavering policy that remains inconsistent at best. At root is the fact that the federal government maintains cannabis (and its constituents) as a Schedule I drug, by extension declaring that it has no respectable medical use. This and related decisions have slowed down the academic study of cannabis (in the U.S.), including its analysis, quality testing, and research and use as a medical treatment. The development, implementation, and reassessment of cultivation and testing standards and methods have largely been piecemeal; additionally, those efforts have been enacted in an environment where, despite the legal status in a state, fear that the federal government will inevitably intervene slows progress even further.

Despite these barriers, the speed at which U.S. states have adopted some form of legalization of cannabis has pushed scientists and researchers to collaborate and improve standards and methods. Necessity continues to be the mother of invention, driving those in the industry to adapt or perish in a difficult, inconsistent market. State officials are teaming up at industry conferences and sharing ideas. Non-profit organizations are joining forces with major standards agencies to expand and improve good laboratory practices. Researchers—whether on their own or with the help of others internationally—are learning more about the various cannabinoids and their interaction with terpenes, driving new insight into potential therapeutic remedies. Overall public perception about marijuana consumption and use is gradually shifting towards a positive light, even when so little is still understood about the long-term ramifications of its use. Commercial interests are taking notice, and so are international treaty makers. All of this adds up to forward momentum in the cannabis industry, with warts and all.

Many factors will affect the future of cannabis regulation, testing, and research; in the process, we're certain to see both ups and downs as political and social climates continue to change. However, as marijuana consumption and hemp-based manufacturing methods continue to see expanded support, consumers and manufacturers, as well as all those involved in between, will always clamor for a safer product that is "as advertised." Laboratory analysis will play an important role in that effort, whether it's in the medical research lab, the quality control lab, or the manufacturer's lab. It will be imperative for all interested parties to further work together to ensure methods are sound and standardized in a realistic and beneficial way to ensure that in the end consumers will get the best possible product available.

7. Resources

Key reading


Reference material

  • ElSohly, M.A.; Radwan, M.M.; Gul, W. et al. (2017). "Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.". Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 103: 1–36. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_1. PMID 28120229. 


Law and regulation


Standards and guidance


Testing


New York State Department of Health:


Accreditation and certification


Publications and blogs

Education and training


Scientific conferences and trade shows


Associations, organizations, and interest groups

Table 1. Global and national entities
Entity Description from website
Agricultural Genomics Foundation "non-profit organization that aims to understand the biology of new and emerging crops with industrial and medical value such as Cannabis and educate the public about the scientific findings"
American Cannabis Nurses Association "national organization dedicated to expanding the knowledge base of endo-cannabinoid therapeutics among nurses"
American Chemical Society, Cannabis Chemistry Subdivision "to be recognized as the leading chemistry authority on the safe & beneficial processing, extraction, and purity analysis of cannabis products"
American Herbal Products Association "national trade association and voice of the herbal products industry"
American Medical Marijuana Physicians Association "a membership driven association, focusing on providing physicians and healthcare professionals with the resources they need to safely and effectively utilize medical marijuana recommendations as an alternative treatment modality for their patients"
American Oil Chemists Society "advances the science and technology of oils, fats, proteins, surfactants, and related materials, enriching the lives of people everywhere"
American Trade Association for Cannabis & Hemp "a 501(c)(6) trade organization ... founded to promote the expansion, protection, and preservation of businesses engaged in the legal trade of industrial, medical, and recreational cannabis and hemp based products"
Americans for Safe Access "national member-based organization of patients, medical professionals, scientists and concerned citizens promoting safe and legal access to cannabis for therapeutic use and research"
Association of Cannabis Specialists "provide evidence and experience-based education for patients, cannabis clinicians, referring clinicians, and lawmakers to help them understand cannabis medicine and make informed decision"
Association of Commercial Cannabis Laboratories "seeks to encourage scientific acumen and responsibility among Cannabis testing labs, and to establish inter-laboratory standards and proficiencies"
Cannabis Council of Canada "national organization of Canada’s licensed producers of Cannabis under Health Canada’s federal Cannabis Act"
Cannabis Horticultural Association "an authoritative and first choice for people seeking to learn how to cultivate clean, high grade cannabis through the objective information and education on sustainable and regenerative management practices"
Cannabis Safety Institute "an advisory board of scientists, doctors, and regulatory experts committed to providing the rigorous scientific data and expertise necessary to ensure the safety of the legal cannabis industry"
Cannabis Science Interest (CSI) Group part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, "aims to promote discussion and knowledge dissemination about cutting edge scientific findings as well as changes in policy and legal status of cannabis, in order to generate innovative ideas for NIDA's research portfolio and dissemination/outreach strategies for all audiences"
Cannabis Trade Federation "a national coalition of cannabis-related businesses that represent all aspects of the industry including cultivators, dispensaries, wholesalers, distributors, and ancillary businesses"
Center for the Study of Cannabis and Social Policy "to promote public and private efforts to use cannabis legalization to end the war on drugs, or 'prohibition'"
Doctors for Cannabis Regulation "a non-profit organization dedicated to advocacy for the legalization, taxation and—above all—the effective regulation of marijuana in the United States"
Foundation of Cannabis Unified Standards "to protect public health, consumer safety, and safeguard the environment by promoting integrity in the cannabis industry"
Hemp Industries Association "a non-profit trade association representing more than one-thousand (1,000) supporters, farmers and business members serving the hemp industries since 1994"
HeroGrown "to raise awareness, advocate, and assist veterans, first responders and their families with the use of cannabis as a safe alternative to deadly prescription drugs"
International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines "to advance knowledge on cannabis, cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and related topics especially with regard to their therapeutic potential"
International Cannabinoid Research Society "to (1) foster cannabinoid research; (2) promote the exchange of scientific information and perspectives about Cannabis, the cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids through the organization of scientific meetings; (3) serve as a source of reliable information regarding the chemistry, pharmacology, therapeutic uses, toxicology and the behavioral, psychological, and social effects of cannabis and its constituents"
International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute "identifies, coordinates and supports global research priorities for the advancement of cannabis and cannabinoid treatments through a multidisciplinary, evidence-based approach that incorporates innovative tools and methods"
Medical Cannabis Institute, The "provides online medical education for healthcare professionals who want to learn about medical cannabis and its potential clinical application"
Medical Cannabis Society "to foster a model medical cannabis industry in the United States through education and leadership"
Minority Cannabis Business Association "501(c)(6) not-for-profit business league created to serve the specific needs of minority cannabis entrepreneurs, workers, and patients/consumers"
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies "a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and educational organization that develops medical, legal, and cultural contexts for people to benefit from the careful uses of psychedelics and marijuana"
National Association of Cannabis Businesses "a self-governing community, focused on differentiating themselves to regulators, the public and others brands or competitors as the most legitimate, professional and trustworthy businesses in the industry"
National Cannabis Bar Association "to educate and connect with other cannabis industry lawyers for the purpose of providing excellent, ethical, and advanced legal assistance to this growing industry"
National Cannabis Industry Association "to promote the growth of a responsible and legitimate cannabis industry and work for a favorable social, economic, and legal environment for that industry in the United States"
National Hemp Association "to support the growth and development of all aspects of the industrial hemp industry"
NORML "to move public opinion sufficiently to legalize the responsible use of marijuana by adults, and to serve as an advocate for consumers to assure they have access to high quality marijuana that is safe, convenient and affordable"
Open Cannabis Project "a community-led, research-driven non-profit with a simple mission: to defend the richness and diversity of cannabis from overbroad patents"
Patients Out of Time "a non-profit 501c3 corporation of the Commonwealth of Virginia that provides education to all disciplines of health care professionals; their specialty and professional organizations; the legal profession; and the public at large, about medical cannabis (marijuana)"
Project CBD "to create a world where cannabis empowers people to take an active role in their health"
Smart Approaches to Marijuana "an alliance of organizations and individuals dedicated to a health-first approach to marijuana policy"
Society of Cannabis Clinicians "a 5013 non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis"
Transnational Institute, The "to strengthen international social movements with rigorous research, reliable information, sound analysis and constructive proposals that advance progressive, democratic policy change and common solutions to global problems"
Veterans Cannabis Project "to improving US military veterans’ quality of life through the opportunity of cannabis"
Women Grow "a for-profit entity that serves as a catalyst for women to influence and succeed in the cannabis industry as the end of marijuana prohibition occurs on a national scale"

Regional

Table 2. Regional entities
Entity Region/locality served Description from website
Alaska Marijuana Industry Association Alaska to "promote and advocate for a vibrant and reasonably regulated Alaska-based marijuana industry"
Arizona Medical Cannabis Association Arizona an information sharing portal about Arizona's medical marijuana "designated caregiver" laws
Arkansas Cannabis Industry Association Arkansas "a 501(c)(6) cannabis industry trade association advocating for laws, regulations and public policies that foster a healthy, professional and accountable medical cannabis industry in our state"
Arkansas Medical Marijuana Association Arkansas "the leading voice for medical marijuana cultivators, distributors and businesses that serve the industry in the Natural State"
California Cannabis Industry Association California "to promote the growth of a responsible and legitimate cannabis industry and work for a favorable social, economic, and legal environment for our industry in the state of California"
Cannabis Trade Council Colorado "to help the cannabis industry to grow and flourish through self-regulation while keeping the needs of the patient foremost"
Colorado Cannabis Chamber of Commerce Colorado "a nonprofit chamber of cannabis businesses that focuses on policies at the state and local levels of government"
Colorado Leads Colorado "a pro-business alliance created to help educate the general public about the economic and community benefits of a safe, regulated medical and recreational cannabis industry"
Delaware Cannabis Advocacy Network Delaware "to build and support a network of business owners, professionals and grassroots activists advocating to legalize cannabis in the First State"
Florida for Care Florida "a non-profit 501C(4) founded in 2014 to advocate for the implementation of a strong, well-regulated, medical marijuana system under Amendment 2"
Florida Medical Cannabis Industry Association Florida "a professional trade association advocating for public policies that foster a safe, professional and accountable medical marijuana industry in Florida"
Hawaiʻi Dispensary Alliance Hawaii "a 501c(6) membership organization that brings together Hawai‘i’s patients, dispensaries, related businesses, and local communities through education, resources, and community building to advocate for favorable legal, social, and economic changes for Hawai‘i’s legitimate cannabis industry"
Las Vegas Medical Marijuana Association Nevada "a chamber of commerce for medical marijuana, organized to promote the medical marijuana industry in Nevada"
Marijuana Industry Group Colorado "to advance appropriate legislation, regulation and implementation of Colorado’s licensing and regulatory program"
Marijuana Industry Trade Association Arizona "professionals, entrepreneurs, educators, and advocates united to build a strong and sustainable future for the cannabis industry in Arizona"
Maryland Cannabis Policy Coalition Maryland to improve honest dialogue, remove criminal penalties for possession, and ensure proper regulation and taxation of cannabis sales in Maryland, among other goals
Maryland Medical Dispensary Association Maryland "a professional trade association advocating for laws, regulations and public policies that foster a healthy, professional and secure medical cannabis industry in our state"
Maryland Wholesale Medical Cannabis Trade Association Maryland "promotes the responsible advancement of the medical cannabis industry in Maryland by fostering a favorable social, economic and legal climate"
Massachusetts Medical Marijuana Dispensers' Association Massachusetts "to provide guidelines, best practices, vendor support, government regulation compliance and up to date research and knowledge about our industry"
Medical Cannabis Alliance of Illinois Illinois "a trade association representing cultivation centers and dispensary organizations, who are licensed by the State through the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Pilot Program"
Medical Cannabis Coalition of Hawaii Hawaii "an independent community driven effort to support medical cannabis patients and caregivers in Hawai‘i"
Medical Marijuana Caregivers of Maine Maine "a Maine trade association dedicated to the support and promotion of safe access to medical marijuana"
Michigan Medical Marijuana Association Michigan not particularly clear on the website what their mission is
Montana Cannabis Industry Association Montana "a safe, functional, responsible and accountable program that meets the needs of patients, communities, and providers"
National Cannabis Industry Association of Ohio Ohio "to ensure a successful and responsible medical cannabis industry in Ohio by promoting sensible laws, regulations and public policies"
Nevada Dispensary Association Nevada "to developing and promoting best practices among Nevada marijuana dispensaries as well as supporting the efforts of marijuana establishments to provide high quality, safe marijuana to Nevada’s consumers"
New Jersey Cannabis Industry Association New Jersey "to promote sensible policy, responsible growth and development of New Jersey’s cannabis industry"
Ohio Cannabis Association Ohio "promotes a responsible expansion of the industry in order to best serve every resident of Ohio"
Oregon Cannabis Association Oregon "a diverse group of cultivators, processors, retailers, entrepreneurs, and allied businesses ... [dedicated] to help one another thrive through networking events, educational workshops, and political representation"
Oregon Cannabis Business Council Oregon "a member-driven trade association that provides professional assistance to post-cultivation cannabis businesses and representation for the industry in state legislative and regulatory decision making"
Texas Cannabis Industry Association Texas "promotes and works to ensure the favorable social, economic and legal environment necessary for a legitimate and responsible cannabis industry in Texas"
Washington CannabBusiness Association Washington (state) "to advocate on behalf of our member companies in the legislative, regulatory, legal and public policy arenas"
Washington Cannabis Laboratory Association Washington (state) "a group of active cannabis labs working together toward a normative framework for cannabis analytics"
Washington Sungrowers Industry Association Washington (state) "to support sungrown cannabis by encouraging environmental and economic sustainability through advocacy, education, and research"

Consultancy and support services

The following entities are known to provide consulting and support services of various types to cannabis testing labs (as well as cultivators, dispensaries, etc.):

Licensed cultivators

This information is based largely on state-supplied resources and is up-to-date as of March 28, 2019.

Canada

Canada's cultivators are licensed by the federal government. The country has 43 cultivation licenses, which can be viewed on their licensed cultivators, processors, and sellers page. A variety of fees are applied to applicants, including application fees, security clearance fees, import/export fees, and annual regulatory fees. Consult the country's Cannabis Fees Order Guide for details.


United States

Alaska:

The state boasts 75 Limited and 97 Standard Marijuana Cultivation Facilities. The state differentiates a "limited" facility as one with 500 square feet or less of grow operation space, whereas "standard" facilities have no such limitation.[1] To review the entire list of 172 cultivation facilities, go to https://www.commerce.alaska.gov/web/amco/ and look for the link "Licenses and Applications by Status."

Licensing fees for limited are $1,000, and $5,000 for standard.[2]


Arizona:

The government ties cultivation to dispensaries. However, Arizona state law prohibits making public a list of dispensaries, so the state's cultivators/dispensaries are not publicly known.[3]


Arkansas:

The five cultivation facilities for Arkansas are[4]:

  • Bold Team, LLC (Cotton Plant)
  • Delta Medical Cannabis Co. (Newport)
  • Natural State Medicinals Cultivation, LLC (White Hall)
  • Natural State Wellness Enterprises, LLC (Newport)
  • Osage Creek Cultivation, LLC (Berryville)

As of March 15, 2019, three of the five were up and running: Bold Team, Osage Creek Cultivation, and Natural State Medicinals Cultivation.[5]

The five facilities were licensed after paying a $100,000 license fee and a $500,000 performance bond.[6]


California:

The state of California has more than 550 unique temporary cannabis cultivators, more than 140 unique adult-use cultivators, and more than 160 unique medicinal-use cultivators. As of January 1, 2019, the state no longer has the authority to issue temporary licenses, though normal adult-use and medicinal-use cultivation licenses can still be applied for.[7] To review the entire list of more than 850 unique cultivation businesses (note: some companies have more than one license), go to https://aca6.accela.com/CALCANNABIS/Cap/CapHome.aspx?module=Licenses, select the license type, then select "Active" from the License Status. (Active licenses won't be older than January 1, 2018.)

Application and license fees vary depending on facility type. Consult the FAQ's "How much do application/license fees cost?" for the latest regulatory text indicating these fees.


Colorado:

The state has more than 360 unique medical-use and more than 510 unique adult-use cultivators. To review the two lists in their entirety, go to https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/enforcement/med-licensed-facilities and select the PDF or Excel file labeled "Cultivations" under each column.

Cultivation application and license fees vary based upon operation size. The base fee for everyone is Tier 1 (1 – 1,800 plants) - $1,500.00.[8]

For cultivators who wish to expand their operations, the following is paid in addition to the Tier 1 fee[8]:

  • Tier 2 (1,801 – 3,600 plants) - $1,000.00
  • Tier 3 (3,601 – 6,000 plants) - $2,000.00
  • Tier 4 (6,001 – 10,200 plants) - $4,000.00
  • Tier 5 (10,201 – 13,800 plants) - $6,000.00
  • Each additional tier of 3,600 plants over Tier 5 - $1,000.00


Connecticut:

According to Connecticut's license lookup for medical marijuana producers, the four entities are licensed to cultivate in the state:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. However, the application fees for licenses were $25,000 for the initial applications, a $75,000 registration fee, and a $75,000 renewal fee.[9]


Delaware:

The state's cultivation facilities are vertically integrated with its dispensaries, i.e., dispensaries are also cultivators. The three entities operating cultivation centers in Delaware are[10]:

These compassion centers pay a $40,000 license fee ever two years.[11]

The state is not currently accepting new applications.


District of Columbia:

The District of Columbia allows eight cultivators to operate[12]:

  • Abatin Wellness Center Of The District Of Columbia, LLC
  • Apelles Investment Management, LLC
  • District Growers, LLC
  • Holistic Remedies, LLC
  • Montana Apothecary, LLC dba Alternative Solutions
  • Organic Wellness, LLC
  • Phyto Management, LLC
  • VentureForth, LLC dba CenterCity Cultivation

The state is not currently accepting new applications.


Florida:

The state's cultivation is vertically integrated with it its other cannabis functions, and "medical marijuana treatment centers are the only businesses allowed to grow, process or sell medical marijuana in Florida."[13] However, vertical integration may be removed as a requirement in 2019.[14] The state currently has 14 medical marijuana treatment centers[13]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. It's application fee was reported to be $60,830.[16]


Hawaii:

The state of Hawaii allows for eight entities to grow and distribute medical marijuana, with each entity able to have two production centers and two dispensaries. Each production center is limited to a maximum of 5,000 cannabis plants. Those eight entities are[17]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. It's application fee was $5,000, initial license fee $75,000, and license renewal fee $50,000.[18]


Illinois:

Illinois law allows up to 22 cultivation centers to be established in the state, with the intent being to create a center in each police district. The current cultivation centers are (some entities have centers in more than one district)[19][20]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. Fees associated with a cultivation center include a $25,000 application fee, a $200,000 first-year license fee, and a $100,000 annual license fee afterwards.[21]


Louisiana:

Difficulties meeting laboratory testing requirements and acquisitions involving a grow operation have slowed down the progress of getting the state's growing operations started.[22][23] Two growing operations are coming online in 2019, however.[24] Those operations are[24][23]:


Maine:

Cultivation and manufacturing is vertically integrated with dispensaries. The state currently allows for eight such facilities, which are run by five entities[25]:

Applications don't currently appear to be accepted. Registration fees were $12,000, and a moving fee of $4,000 was also required.[26]


Maryland:

The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Maryland currently has 14 licensed growers[27]:

The state opened the application process again for growers and processors, with applications being accepted from March 25 to May 24, 2019. (Seeking to add four new growers and 10 new processors.) The state requires a $2,000 application fee[28] and a $250,000 two-year license fee.[29]


Massachusetts:

The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Massachusetts currently has 10 licensed cultivators[30]:

Application and license fees vary based on how many plants are to be grown in the cultivation facility. Refer to the Cannabis Control Commission's guidance document "Guidance for Application and License Fees" for details.


Michigan:

The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Michigan currently has 21 licensed cultivators[31]:

  • 3843 Euclid, LLC
  • A & H Partners, LLC
  • Adams Family Farms, LLC
  • Alvarez Cultivation, LLC
  • Attitude Wellness, LLC
  • BlueSol Biomedical, LLC
  • Choice Labs, LLC
  • DJR Michigan Properties, LLC dba High Level Health
  • Exclusive Brands, LLC
  • Free Reign, LLC
  • Golden Harvests, LLC
  • Great Lakes Cultivation, LLC
  • Great Lakes Natural Remedies, Inc.
  • Green Peak Industries, LLC
  • OrganiLife of Michigan, LLC
  • Pure Green, LLC
  • Redbud Roots Lab III, LLC
  • R L Solutions, LLC dba Real Leaf Solutions
  • SJS II, LLC
  • VB Chesaning, LLC
  • Vendco Michigan, Inc. dba Bigfoot Wellness

The state charges $6,000 for an application fee, as well as a "regulatory assessment" fee, which is not clear in cost (varies from $10,000 to $66,000).[32]


Minnesota:

The state has chosen two companies to cultivate for its medical cannabis program[33]:

Further applications are not being accepted at this time. A $20,000 application fee was due for anyone who applied.[34]


Missouri:

  • Medical marijuana passed in November 2018; Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services is still sorting out the details.[35] Businesses interested in cultivating in the state may reportedly begin applying on August 3, 2019. Licensing application fees will be $10,000.[36]


Montana:

The medical marijuana program in the state is in a bit of disarray. As Michigan-based New Leaf Cannabis Consulting puts it[37]:

Voters re-approved medical cannabis in the state in Nov. 2016. Dispensaries were supposed to not open until June 2017, but a Montana court ruled that they may reopen immediately. Montana used to have an established medical cannabis dispensary program, but a court ruling upholding a severe state law dismantled the dispensaries, by limiting the maximum number of patients to 3; that portion of the law is now repealed.

As New Leaf also points out, the state hasn't made publicly available a list of licensed, operational dispensaries and cultivators operating under the new terms.[37]


Nevada:

The current number and details of the state's licensed cultivators are unknown. Per an inquiry and a form letter emailed from the Marijuana Enforcement Division of Nevada, "the state is only permitted to release information on open dispensaries," and does not release information on current licensed cultivators. However, a list of provisional certificates awarded in November 2014 can still be found on their site, though many of the names are redacted due to confidentiality laws in the state.

Licensing fees for cultivation facilities differ based on product. Recreational marijuana cultivation has an initial $30,000 licensing fee, with renewal costs at $10,000. Medical marijuana cultivation has an initial $3,000 license, with renewal costs at $1,000.[38]


New Hampshire:

The state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into alternative treatment centers, with the state currently allowing for four locations run by three entities[39]:

The state doesn't appear to be accepting new applications, and it's not clear what fees applicants had to pay.


New Jersey:

The state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into alternative treatment centers, with the state currently allowing for six locations run by six entities[39]:

An application period occurred in July 2018 to grant six more licenses. In December 2018, six additional providers were invited to proceed with the application process, though in February 2019 five appeals were filed by rejected applicants and an existing alternative treatment center in regards to the selected six. Due to the litigation, it's not clear if and when those six providers will become fully licensed and operational.[40][41]


New Mexico:

New Mexico vertically integrates cultivation and distribution. The state calls such licensed entities "licensed non-profit producers" (LNPPs), of which 91 locations are operational.[42] (Go here to see the full list.)

The state is not accepting additional applications at this time. Initial application fee was $10,000, with a license fee of "thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) for the first 150 cannabis plants to be possessed by the non-profit producer, and ten thousand dollars ($10,000) for each additional quantity of 50 plants thereafter to be possessed, up to a maximum collective total of 450 cannabis plants."[43]


New York:

The state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into registered organizations. Each registered organization can have one cultivation facility and up to four dispensaries. Those organizations are[44]:

Applications are not currently being accepted. Applications fee was $10,000, licensing fee $200,000.[45]


North Dakota:

The state approved two cultivation sites in 2018 for its medical marijuana program[46]:

Additional cultivation applications don't appear to be accepted. An initial $5,000 application fee was required, and a $110,000 certification fee for a two-year license.[47]


Ohio:

The state of Ohio approved 24 total cultivator licenses, 12 for Level I and 12 for Level II. They are[48]:

The state is not currently accepting applications. Application fees were $20,000 for Level I and $2,000 for Level II cultivators, with initial license fees of $180,000 and $18,000 respectively, and annual renewal fees of $200,000 and $20,000 respectively. (Level I permitted to 25,000 square feet initially, Level II to 3,000 square feet initially.)[48]


Oklahoma:

In April 2019, the state released a document containing 118 pages of cannabis cultivators for its medical marijuana program. Consult the "List of Licensed Businesses" to view the entire list. Application/license fee is $2,500 annually.[50]


Oregon

Oregon boasts nearly 1,150 recreational cannabis cultivation licenses across its program. (Medical cannabis growers are designated by an Oregon Medical Marijuana Program.[51]) To view the list of cultivators, go here and choose the PDF or Excel document titled "Approved Marijuana Licenses."

Application fee is $250, license fee varies depending license type ($100–$5,750).[52]


Pennsylvania:

The state initially introduced 12 grower-processor licenses with Phase I of its program.[53] In 2018, the state issued 13 additional permits to grower-processors[54], taking the total to the allowed-for 25. They are:

Applications are currently not being accepted. Prior applicants paid a $10,000 application fee and $200,000 permit fee.[54]


Rhode Island:

The state has given licenses to 46 cultivators, with 10 additional licenses pending final licensing inspection. Consult the state's approval page for the full list. The application process is currently closed. Prior applicants were required to pay a $5,000 application fee. Annual license fees vary based upon the class (grow operation size) license: Micro at $5,000, Class A at $20,000, Class B at $35,000, Class C at $50,000, and Class D at $80,000.[56]


Utah:

  • Medical marijuana passed in November 2018, and the state is still working on its implementation.[57] The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food will be responsible for managing cultivation licenses, though they have not made any updates yet (only discusses industrial hemp[58]) on when applications will be accepted.


Vermont:

Vermont vertically integrates cultivation and distribution and refers to licensed entities as "dispensaries." The state has issued five dispensary registration certificates[59]:

The state has said it plans on opening the application process to a sixth dispensary once patient count reaches 7000 (which could happen in 2019).[59] Application fees were $2,500 and license fees set at $20,000. Annual renewal fee is $30,000.[60]


Washington:

The state has more than 1,000 active production licenses issued. To view the entire list, select the "Marijuana License Applicants" link on the Frequently Requested Lists page. The state is not accepting new applications at this time. Application fees were $250, with an annual $1,480 annual license fee for producers.[61]


West Virginia:

  • The state is still working on developing its medical cannabis program due to unanticipated delays[62], particularly with finding banking solutions for the program.[63] The Bureau for Public Health indicates that it plans on issuing no more than 10 permits for cultivators. The initial application fee will be $5,000 and the permit fee $50,000.[64] The application period should open sometime in 2019.[63]

Testing labs and pricing info

Canada

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The following are licensed cannabis testing labs, as reported by Health Canada[65]:

Alberta


British Columbia


Manitoba


New Brunswick

  • RPC (Pricing not public)


Nova Scotia


Ontario


Prince Edward Island


Quebec


Saskatchewan

United States

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The prevalence of testing laboratories in any given state depends on a few factors: legalization status, state laws regarding testing, and strictness of regulations. Labs typically appear as stand-alone, third-party entities. Though not common, some testing laboratories are located within dispensaries (e.g., Champlain Valley Dispensary in Vermont[66]) and treatment centers (e.g., Sanctuary ATC in New Hampshire.[67]).

The following are known active cannabis testing labs (those currently in the licensing process are not included):

Alaska


Arizona:


Arkansas:


California:


Colorado:


Connecticut:


Delaware:


District of Columbia:


Florida:


Hawaii:


Illinois:


Louisiana:

  • Due to an absence of independent testing labs, the Louisiana Department of Agriculture is testing, as of October 2018[22] The Department of Agriculture is jointly working with the LSU AgCenter's Agricultural Chemistry Department to test for the state's fledgling medical marijuana program.[70]


Maine:


Maryland:


Massachusetts:


Michigan:


Minnesota:

  • Not clear; independent labs must be approved by Commissioner of Health.[71] Two labs—Aspen Research and Legend Technical Services—were approved to do testing in 2015, but neither lists those services on their website.[72]


Missouri:

  • Medical marijuana passed in November 2018; Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services needs to develop testing rules[35]


Montana:


Nevada:


New Hampshire:

  • The state mandates testing, but it's not clear which independent laboratories are approved to do so. Alternative treatment centers may be responsible for own testing.


New Jersey:


New Mexico:

  • Scepter Lab (No website)
  • Scientific Base Solutions (No website)
  • Steep Hill New Mexico (Pricing not public)


New York:

  • "The Department's Wadsworth Center Laboratory will perform initial testing and analysis of final medical marijuana products until independent laboratories receive certification from the New York State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP)."[74]


North Carolina:

  • Avazyme (Industrial hemp testing; pricing not public)


North Dakota:


Ohio:


Oklahoma:


Oregon


Pennsylvania:


Rhode Island:

  • Rhode Island Department of Health began taking applications for testing labs in September 2018.[79]
  • East Coast Labs (Pricing not public)


Utah:

  • Medical marijuana passed in November 2018; the state is still working on laboratory testing terms[57]


Vermont:

  • The Department of Public Safety "may require laboratory testing of cannabis produced by a registered dispensary. The Department may specify the testing methodology. The registered dispensary shall bear the costs of any testing required by the Department."[80]
  • Champlain Valley Dispenary (News article indicates may be accepting testing from non-patients; $75-$125/sample for potency[81])
  • Nutraceutical Science Laboratories (Pricing not public)


Washington:


West Virginia:

  • Still working on developing its medical cannabis program.[62] Draft legislation says the Bureau for Public Health will be responsible for approving testing laboratories.[82]


Wisconsin:

Mexico

Flag of Mexico.png
Recreational cannabis will potentially be legalized in Mexico in 2019.[83][84]


 
 
 
 

References

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Citation information for this chapter

Chapters: 6. Final thoughts and 7. Resources

Title: Past, Present, and Future of Cannabis Laboratory Testing and Regulation in the United States

Edition: Second edition

Author for citation: Shawn E. Douglas

License for content: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Publication date: May 2019