Book:Past, Present, and Future of Cannabis Laboratory Testing and Regulation in the United States/Final thoughts and resources/Licensed cultivators

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6.8 Licensed cultivators

This information is based largely on state-supplied resources and is up-to-date as of July 2022.

6.8.1 Canada

Canada's cultivators are licensed by the federal government. The country has 87 full cultivation licenses, which can be viewed on their licensed cultivators, processors, and sellers page. A variety of fees are applied to applicants, including application fees, security clearance fees, import/export fees, and annual regulatory fees. Consult the country's Cannabis Fees Order Guide for details.

6.8.2 United States


With the approval of a medical cannabis program, the Alabama Medical Cannabis Commission notes that it will begin to accept applications for cultivator processors on September 1, 2022.[1]


The state boasts 115 Limited and 132 Standard Marijuana Cultivation Facilities. The state differentiates a "limited" facility as one with 500 square feet or less of grow operation space, whereas "standard" facilities have no such limitation.[2] To review the entire list of 200+ cultivation facilities, go to and look for the link "Licenses and Applications by Status."

Licensing fees for new limited facilities are $1,000, and $5,000 for standard.[3]


The government ties cultivation to dispensaries. However, Arizona state law prohibits making public a list of dispensaries, so the state's cultivators/dispensaries are not publicly known.[4]


The eight cultivation facilities for Arkansas are[5]:

  • Bold Team, LLC (Cotton Plant)
  • Carpenter Farms of Grady, LLC (Grady)
  • Delta Medical Cannabis Co. (Newport)
  • Good Day Farm Arkansas, LLC (Pine Bluff)
  • Natural State Medicinals Cultivation, LLC (White Hall)
  • New Day Cultivation, LLC (Hot Springs)
  • Osage Creek Cultivation, LLC (Berryville)
  • River Valley Production, LLC (Fort Smith; DBA River Valley Relief Cultivation)

The eight facilities were licensed after paying a $100,000 license fee and a $500,000 performance bond.[6]


The state of California has nearly 3,000 unique cannabis adult-use and medicinal-use cultivators of provisional and annual status. As of January 1, 2019, the state no longer has the authority to issue temporary licenses, though normal adult-use and medicinal-use cultivation licenses can still be applied for.[7] To review the entire list of more than 850 unique cultivation businesses (note: some companies have more than one license), go to, select the license type, then select "Active" from the License Status. (Active licenses won't be older than January 1, 2018.)

Application and license fees vary depending on facility type. Consult the "Application and license fees" page for these fees.


The state has more than 380 unique medical-use and more than 700 unique adult-use cultivators. To review the two lists in their entirety, go to and select the "Cultivations" link.

Cultivation application and license fees vary based upon operation size. The base license fee for everyone is Tier 1 (1 – 1,800 plants) - $1,830.00.[8]

For cultivators who wish to expand their operations, the following license fee is paid[8]:

  • Tier 2 (1,801 – 3,600 plants) - $2,806.00
  • Tier 3 (3,601 – 6,000 plants) - $3,660.00
  • Tier 4 (6,001 – 10,200 plants) - $5,490.00
  • Tier 5 (10,201 – 13,800 plants) - $7,930.00
  • Each additional tier of 3,600 plants over Tier 5 - $976.00


According to Connecticut's license lookup for medical marijuana producers, the four entities are licensed to cultivate in the state:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. However, the application fees for licenses were $25,000 for the initial applications, a $75,000 registration fee, and a $75,000 renewal fee.[9]


The state's cultivation facilities are vertically integrated with its dispensaries, i.e., dispensaries are also cultivators. The four unique entities operating cultivation centers in Delaware are[10][11][12]:

These compassion centers pay a $40,000 license fee ever two years.[13]

The state is not currently accepting new applications, though it may do so in 2022 or 2023.[11]

District of Columbia:

The District of Columbia allows eight cultivators to operate[14]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications.


The state's cultivation is vertically integrated with it its other cannabis functions, and medical marijuana treatment centers (MMTCs) "are the only businesses authorized to cultivate, process and dispense low-THC cannabis and medical marijuana" in Florida.[15] (Vertical integration may be removed as a requirement at some future point, though that progress has stalled.[16]) The state currently has 17 active medical marijuana treatment centers[15]:

The state is currently in Phase Two Review of a new application process.[17]


In July 2021, Georgia Access to Medical Cannabis Commission (GMCC) announced that it had approved six cultivation licenses for the manufacture of low-THC medical cannabis oil.[18] However, as of early July 2022, those licenses still do not appear as being issued on the GMCC website.[19] It's possible that filed legal protests against the application process, as well as other complaints, may be slowing down the finalization process.[20][21] The July 2021 announced license winners were[18]:


The state of Hawaii allows for eight entities to grow and distribute medical marijuana, with each entity able to have two production centers and two dispensaries. Each production center is limited to a maximum of 5,000 cannabis plants. Those eight entities are[22][23]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. It's application fee was $5,000, initial license fee $75,000, and license renewal fee $50,000.[24]


Illinois law allows up to 22 cultivation centers to be established in the state, with the intent being to create a center in each police district. The current cultivation centers are (some entities have centers in more than one district)[25]:

The state is not currently accepting new applications. Fees associated with a cultivation center include a $25,000 application fee, a $200,000 first-year license fee, and a $100,000 annual license fee afterwards.[26]


As of July 2022, the state still has only one active cannabis cultivator out of the two allowed by its medical cannabis program: MedPharm Iowa LLC (now known as Bud & Mary’s Cannabis Co.).[27][28] Iowa Relief, LLC backed out of the program in June 2020, and a request for proposals was issued by the state later that year.[28] ICC MFG Holdings LLC, doing business as Iowa Cannabis Co., apparently won that RFP but has been plagued by delays, requiring a second extension to get their cultivation facility going by May 1, 2023 or otherwise face losing their provisionary license.[27]


Difficulties meeting laboratory testing requirements and acquisitions involving a grow operation originally slowed down the progress of getting the state's growing operations started.[29][30][31] Two growing operations eventually came online[31][30][32]:

  • GBSciences, Inc., hired by Louisiana State University, then sold to Wellcana Group, LLC
  • Ilera Healthcare, which bought Advanced Biomedics, originally hired by Southern University


For medical marijuana, cultivation and manufacturing is vertically integrated with dispensaries. The state currently has more than 20 dispensaries approved.[33] (Go to and filter by Active.) Recreational marijuana does not appear to be integrated, with more than 60 cultivation facilities approved.[34] (Go to and filter by Active.)

Price of application/license fees is not clear.


The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Maryland currently has 18 licensed growers[35]:

The state requires a $2,000 application fee[36] and a $250,000 two-year license fee.[37]


The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Massachusetts currently has more than 80 approved cultivators.[38] (Go to for the full list; sort by license type.)

Application and license fees vary based on how many plants are to be grown in the cultivation facility. Refer to the Cannabis Control Commission's guidance document "Guidance on Licensure" for details.


The state does not require vertical integration among its growers, dispensaries, and producers, but many growers may also be integrated with dispensaries, etc. Michigan currently has more than 480 unique licensed cultivators.[39]. (Go to and find "Active Facility Licenses in Michigan" and click "Launch Map." From there, in the filter, unselect all entities and select all the grower entries. Then select the arrow at the bottom middle of the page to view the table.)

The state charges $3,000 for a prequalification application fee.[40]


The state has chosen two companies to cultivate for its medical cannabis program[41]:

Further applications are not being accepted at this time. A $20,000 application fee was due for anyone who applied.[42]


As of July 2022, the Mississippi medical cannabis program is young, and the following entities are licensed as cultivators[43]:

The state has a tiered system for cultivators, with fees commensurate with the tier level (whether a "micro-cultivator" or a "cultivator").[44]


The state has nearly 50 unique businesses licensed and approved to cultivate cannabis in the state. To view the list of cultivation facilities, go the licensed facilities page for the state and download the related Excel sheet.

Licensing application fees were $10,000.[45] Applications for cultivation, testing, manufacturing, and dispensary facilities are currently not being accepted.[46]


The state lists more than 300 licensed cultivators for its program. See the Cannabis Control Division page and look for "Licensed Cultivation List."

The state claims it will open applications to new cultivators starting July 1, 2023. Fees are based on a cultivation "canopy tier" level.[47]


The current number and details of the state's licensed cultivators are unknown. Per an inquiry and a form letter emailed from the Marijuana Enforcement Division of Nevada, "the state is only permitted to release information on open dispensaries," and does not release information on current licensed cultivators. However, a list of provisional certificates awarded in November 2014 can still be found on their site, though many of the names are redacted due to confidentiality laws in the state.

Licensing fees for cultivation facilities differ based on product. Recreational marijuana cultivation has an initial $30,000 licensing fee, with renewal costs at $10,000. Medical marijuana cultivation has an initial $3,000 license, with renewal costs at $1,000.[48]

New Hampshire:

The state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into alternative treatment centers, with the state currently allowing for seven locations run by three entities[49]:

The state doesn't appear to be accepting new applications, and it's not clear what fees applicants had to pay.

New Jersey:

The state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into alternative treatment centers, with the state currently allowing for 25 locations run by 12 entities[50]:

An application period occurred in July 2018 to grant six more licenses. In December 2018, six additional providers were invited to proceed with the application process, though in February 2019 five appeals were filed by rejected applicants and an existing alternative treatment center in regards to the selected six. Due to the litigation, only one those six providers—Rise—has become fully licensed and operational.[51][52][53] By early 2020, more lawsuits had delayed final approvals even further, with no clear conclusion in site.[53] Since then, numerous other lawsuits have raised questions about the fate of several present and future dispensaries in the state.[54][55][56][57][58]

New Mexico:

The state calls licensed cultivators "producers", of which there are more than 100.[59] (Go to and filter by license type of "Cannabis Producer" to see the full list.)

The state is not accepting additional applications at this time. Initial application fee was $10,000, with a license fee of "thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) for the first 150 cannabis plants to be possessed by the non-profit producer, and ten thousand dollars ($10,000) for each additional quantity of 50 plants thereafter to be possessed, up to a maximum collective total of 450 cannabis plants."[60]

New York:

For medical cannabis, the state vertically integrates cultivation and dispensation of medical cannabis into "registered organizations." Each registered organization can have one cultivation facility and up to four dispensaries. Those organizations are[61]:

Applications are not currently being accepted. Applications fee was $10,000, licensing fee $200,000.[62]

As of July 2022, the state is still working on licensing cultivators for adult-use cannabis.[63]

North Dakota:

The state approved two cultivation sites in 2018 for its medical marijuana program[64]:

Additional cultivation applications don't appear to be accepted. An initial $5,000 application fee was required, and a $110,000 certification fee for a two-year license.[65][66]


The state of Ohio has approved 29 certified and eight provisional cultivator licenses, 23 for Level I and 14 for Level II. They are[67]:

The state is not currently accepting applications. Application fees were $20,000 for Level I and $2,000 for Level II cultivators, with initial license fees of $180,000 and $18,000 respectively, and annual renewal fees of $200,000 and $20,000 respectively. (Level I permitted to 25,000 square feet initially, Level II to 3,000 square feet initially.)[67]


The state has more than 7,100 cannabis cultivators for its medical marijuana program. Consult the "List of Licensed Businesses" to view the entire list. Application/license fee ranges from $2,500 to $50,000, depending on the size and type of facility.[68]


Oregon boasts almost 1,400 recreational cannabis cultivation licenses across its program. (Medical cannabis growers are designated by an Oregon Medical Marijuana Program.[69]) To view the list of cultivators, go here and choose the PDF or Excel document titled "Approved Marijuana Licenses."

As of April 2022, no new cultivation license applications are being accepted until at least April 2024.[70] The application fee was $250, and the license fee varied depending on license type ($100–$5,750).[71]


The state initially introduced 12 grower-processor licenses with Phase I of its program.[72] In 2018, the state issued 13 additional permits to grower-processors[73], taking the total to the allowed-for 25. They are:

Applications are currently not being accepted. Prior applicants paid a $10,000 application fee and $200,000 permit fee.[73]

Rhode Island:

The state has given licenses to 66 cultivators, with one additional license pending final licensing inspection. Consult the state's approval page for the full list. The application process is currently closed. Prior applicants were required to pay a $5,000 application fee. Annual license fees vary based upon the class (grow operation size) license: Micro at $5,000, Class A at $20,000, Class B at $35,000, Class C at $50,000, and Class D at $80,000.[75]

South Dakota:

The state boasts nearly 30 cultivators for its medical cannabis program; see the page of certified establishments for more.[76] As for application fees, a nonrefundable $5,000 application fee per establishment is required.[77]


The state's medical cannabis program, which is quite limited in scope, currently allows only three suppliers[78][79]:

As of July 2022, the application period for new facilities remains closed.


The state handed out eight of its 10 cultivator licenses in 2019. See the state's cannabis program site for details. Those eight cultivators are:

Applications are currently not being accepted by the state. The original application fee was $2,500, with an additional $51.50 for a background check. Approved licensees pay $100,000 for the first-year license.[80]


Vermont vertically integrates cultivation and distribution and refers to licensed entities as "dispensaries." The state has issued five dispensary registration certificates[81]:

The state has said it plans on opening the application process to a sixth dispensary once patient count reaches 7,000.[81] Application fees were $2,500 and license fees set at $20,000. Annual renewal fee is $30,000.[83]


Households can grow up to four plants; however, licenses for cultivation for the state's formal marketplace can't be applied for until July 2023.[84]


The state has more than 1,050 active production licenses issued. To view the entire list, go here, export the list, and sort out the production facilities. The state is not accepting new applications at this time. Application fees were $250, with an annual $1,480 annual license fee for producers.[85]

West Virginia:

  • The state is still working on developing its medical cannabis program due to unanticipated delays[86], particularly with finding banking solutions for the program.[87] The Bureau for Public Health indicates that it plans on issuing no more than 10 permits for cultivators. The initial application fee will be $5,000 and the permit fee $50,000.[88] The application period should open sometime in 2019.[87] The state ceased accepting application for cultivators on February 18, 2020.[86] In October 2020, the state announced its 10 cultivators[89]:

The state is no longer accepting applications.


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