Difference between revisions of "Template:COVID-19 Testing, Reporting, and Information Management in the Laboratory/Overview of COVID-19 and its challenges/COVID-19: History and impact (so far)"

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The first known case of COVID-19 dates back to November 2019, "according to government data seen by the ''South China Morning Post''."<ref name="MaCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3074991/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back |title=Coronavirus: China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17 |author=Ma, J. |work=South China Morning Post |date=13 March 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> By the middle of December, infections were at 27, and by the end of the year the number was 266.<ref name="MaCorona20" /> By that time, Chinese health authorities had been updated that the pneumonia-like symptoms of patients in China's Hubei province may have been the symptoms of a disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus<ref name="MaCorona20" />, and the WHO was notified.<ref name="HuiTheCont20">{{cite journal |title=The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China |journal=International Journal of Infectious Diseases |author=Hui, D.S.; Azhar, E.I.; Madani, T.A. et al. |volume=91 |pages=264–66 |year=2020 |doi=10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009 |pmid=31953166}}</ref> At the start of 2020, that number grew to 381 known cases<ref name="MaCorona20" />, jumping to more than 7,700 confirmed and 12,000 suspected cases by the end of January.<ref name="WHOStatement20">{{cite web |url=https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov) |title=Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) |author=World Health Organization |publisher=World Health Organization |date=30 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> By that time, the WHO had convened a second meeting of its Emergency Committee to discuss the declaration of a PHEIC, saying the then-called "2019-nCoV" constituted a health emergency of international concern.<ref name="WHOStatement20" /> This spurred the publishing of WHO technical advice to other countries, with a focus on "reducing human infection, prevention of secondary transmission and international spread, and contributing to the international response."<ref name="WHOStatement20" /> However, at the same time, the virus was already beginning to spread in locations such as Australia<ref name="HuntFirst20">{{cite web |url=https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/first-confirmed-case-of-novel-coronavirus-in-australia |title=First confirmed case of novel coronavirus in Australia |author=Hunt, G. |publisher=Australian Department of Health |date=25 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, France<ref name="JacobCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/coronavirus-trois-premiers-cas-confirmes-en-france-20200124 |title=Coronavirus: trois premiers cas confirmés en France, deux d’entre eux vont bien |author=Jacob, E. |work=Le Figaro |date=24 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Germany<ref name="SPIEGELBayer20">{{cite web |url=https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/corona-virus-erster-fall-in-deutschland-bestaetigt-a-19843b8d-8694-451f-baf7-0189d3356f99 |title=Bayerische Behörden bestätigen ersten Fall in Deutschland |author=Der Spiegel |date=28 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> Italy<ref name="SevergniniCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.corriere.it/cronache/20_gennaio_30/coronavirus-italia-corona-9d6dc436-4343-11ea-bdc8-faf1f56f19b7.shtml |title=Coronavirus, primi due casi in Italia «Sono due cinesi in vacanza a Roma» Sono arrivati a Milano il 23 gennaio |author=Severgnini, C. |work=Corriere della Sera |date=30 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Japan<ref name="SimJapan20">{{cite web |url=https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/japan-confirms-first-case-of-infection-with-new-china-coronavirus |title=Japan confirms first case of infection from Wuhan coronavirus; Vietnam quarantines two tourists |author=Sim, W. |work=The Straits Times |date=16 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, South Korea<ref name="Jin-wooConfirmation20">{{cite web |url=https://www.mk.co.kr/news/society/view/2020/01/80017/ |title=신종 코로나바이러스 한국인 첫환자 확인 |author=Jin-woo, S. |work=Maekyung.com |date=24 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Spain<ref name="LindeSanidad20">{{cite web |url=https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020/01/31/actualidad/1580509404_469734.html |title=Sanidad confirma en La Gomera el primer caso de coronavirus en España |author=Linde, P. |work=El País |date=31 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, the United Kingdom<ref name="BallHunt20">{{cite web |url=https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/hunt-for-contacts-of-coronavirus-stricken-pair-in-york-dh363qf8k |title=Hunt for contacts of coronavirus-stricken pair in York |author=Ball, T.; Wace, C. |work=The Times |date=31 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, and the United States.<ref name="HolshueFirst20">{{cite journal |title=First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |author=Holshue, M.L.; DeBolt, C.; Lindquist, S. et al. |volume=382 |issue=10 |pages=929–36 |year=2020 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa2001191 |pmid=32004427}}</ref>
 
The first known case of COVID-19 dates back to November 2019, "according to government data seen by the ''South China Morning Post''."<ref name="MaCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3074991/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back |title=Coronavirus: China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17 |author=Ma, J. |work=South China Morning Post |date=13 March 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> By the middle of December, infections were at 27, and by the end of the year the number was 266.<ref name="MaCorona20" /> By that time, Chinese health authorities had been updated that the pneumonia-like symptoms of patients in China's Hubei province may have been the symptoms of a disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus<ref name="MaCorona20" />, and the WHO was notified.<ref name="HuiTheCont20">{{cite journal |title=The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China |journal=International Journal of Infectious Diseases |author=Hui, D.S.; Azhar, E.I.; Madani, T.A. et al. |volume=91 |pages=264–66 |year=2020 |doi=10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009 |pmid=31953166}}</ref> At the start of 2020, that number grew to 381 known cases<ref name="MaCorona20" />, jumping to more than 7,700 confirmed and 12,000 suspected cases by the end of January.<ref name="WHOStatement20">{{cite web |url=https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov) |title=Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) |author=World Health Organization |publisher=World Health Organization |date=30 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> By that time, the WHO had convened a second meeting of its Emergency Committee to discuss the declaration of a PHEIC, saying the then-called "2019-nCoV" constituted a health emergency of international concern.<ref name="WHOStatement20" /> This spurred the publishing of WHO technical advice to other countries, with a focus on "reducing human infection, prevention of secondary transmission and international spread, and contributing to the international response."<ref name="WHOStatement20" /> However, at the same time, the virus was already beginning to spread in locations such as Australia<ref name="HuntFirst20">{{cite web |url=https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/first-confirmed-case-of-novel-coronavirus-in-australia |title=First confirmed case of novel coronavirus in Australia |author=Hunt, G. |publisher=Australian Department of Health |date=25 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, France<ref name="JacobCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/coronavirus-trois-premiers-cas-confirmes-en-france-20200124 |title=Coronavirus: trois premiers cas confirmés en France, deux d’entre eux vont bien |author=Jacob, E. |work=Le Figaro |date=24 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Germany<ref name="SPIEGELBayer20">{{cite web |url=https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/corona-virus-erster-fall-in-deutschland-bestaetigt-a-19843b8d-8694-451f-baf7-0189d3356f99 |title=Bayerische Behörden bestätigen ersten Fall in Deutschland |author=Der Spiegel |date=28 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> Italy<ref name="SevergniniCorona20">{{cite web |url=https://www.corriere.it/cronache/20_gennaio_30/coronavirus-italia-corona-9d6dc436-4343-11ea-bdc8-faf1f56f19b7.shtml |title=Coronavirus, primi due casi in Italia «Sono due cinesi in vacanza a Roma» Sono arrivati a Milano il 23 gennaio |author=Severgnini, C. |work=Corriere della Sera |date=30 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Japan<ref name="SimJapan20">{{cite web |url=https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/japan-confirms-first-case-of-infection-with-new-china-coronavirus |title=Japan confirms first case of infection from Wuhan coronavirus; Vietnam quarantines two tourists |author=Sim, W. |work=The Straits Times |date=16 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, South Korea<ref name="Jin-wooConfirmation20">{{cite web |url=https://www.mk.co.kr/news/society/view/2020/01/80017/ |title=신종 코로나바이러스 한국인 첫환자 확인 |author=Jin-woo, S. |work=Maekyung.com |date=24 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, Spain<ref name="LindeSanidad20">{{cite web |url=https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020/01/31/actualidad/1580509404_469734.html |title=Sanidad confirma en La Gomera el primer caso de coronavirus en España |author=Linde, P. |work=El País |date=31 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, the United Kingdom<ref name="BallHunt20">{{cite web |url=https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/hunt-for-contacts-of-coronavirus-stricken-pair-in-york-dh363qf8k |title=Hunt for contacts of coronavirus-stricken pair in York |author=Ball, T.; Wace, C. |work=The Times |date=31 January 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref>, and the United States.<ref name="HolshueFirst20">{{cite journal |title=First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |author=Holshue, M.L.; DeBolt, C.; Lindquist, S. et al. |volume=382 |issue=10 |pages=929–36 |year=2020 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa2001191 |pmid=32004427}}</ref>
  
As the disease continued to spread in February, naming conventions came together, with the WHO declaring the disease's name "COVID-19," short for "coronavirus disease 2019."<ref name="EnserinkUpdate20">{{cite web |url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/bit-chaotic-christening-new-coronavirus-and-its-disease-name-create-confusion |title=Update: ‘A bit chaotic.’ Christening of new coronavirus and its disease name create confusion |author=Enserink, M. |work=Science |date=12 February 2020 |accessdate=30 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="JiangADistinct20">{{cite journal |title=A distinct name is needed for the new coronavirus |journal=The Lancet |author=Jiang, S.; Shi, Z.; Shu, Y. et al. |volume=395 |issue=10228 |page=949 |year=2020 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30419-0 |pmid=32087125}}</ref> By the end of the month, the WHO warned a "very high" likelihood the virus's spread could turn into a full [[pandemic]].<ref name="MulierWHO20">{{cite web |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-02-28/who-raises-global-risk-for-coronavirus-to-very-high-from-high |title=WHO Raises Global Risk for Coronavirus to Very High |author=Mulier, T. |work=Bloomberg |date=28 February 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> Less than two weeks later, on March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, noting more than 118,000 confirmed cases and 4,000 deaths on all continents except Antarctica.<ref name="GumbrechtWho20">{{cite web |url=https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/11/health/coronavirus-pandemic-world-health-organization/index.html |title=WHO declares novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic |author=Gumbrecht, J.; Howard, J. |work=CNN Health |date=11 March 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> As of April 28, the number of confirmed cases was nearly three million, with more than 200,000 people dead.<ref name=”WHOSitRep99_20”>{{cite web |url=https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200428-sitrep-99-covid-19.pdf |format=PDF |title=Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 99 |author=World Health Organization |publisher=World Health Organization |date=28 April 2020 |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>
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As the disease continued to spread in February, naming conventions came together, with the WHO declaring the disease's name "COVID-19," short for "coronavirus disease 2019."<ref name="EnserinkUpdate20">{{cite web |url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/bit-chaotic-christening-new-coronavirus-and-its-disease-name-create-confusion |title=Update: ‘A bit chaotic.’ Christening of new coronavirus and its disease name create confusion |author=Enserink, M. |work=Science |date=12 February 2020 |accessdate=30 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="JiangADistinct20">{{cite journal |title=A distinct name is needed for the new coronavirus |journal=The Lancet |author=Jiang, S.; Shi, Z.; Shu, Y. et al. |volume=395 |issue=10228 |page=949 |year=2020 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30419-0 |pmid=32087125}}</ref> By the end of the month, the WHO warned a "very high" likelihood the virus's spread could turn into a full [[pandemic]].<ref name="MulierWHO20">{{cite web |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-02-28/who-raises-global-risk-for-coronavirus-to-very-high-from-high |title=WHO Raises Global Risk for Coronavirus to Very High |author=Mulier, T. |work=Bloomberg |date=28 February 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> Less than two weeks later, on March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, noting more than 118,000 confirmed cases and 4,000 deaths on all continents except Antarctica.<ref name="GumbrechtWho20">{{cite web |url=https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/11/health/coronavirus-pandemic-world-health-organization/index.html |title=WHO declares novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic |author=Gumbrecht, J.; Howard, J. |work=CNN Health |date=11 March 2020 |accessdate=31 March 2020}}</ref> As of May 19, the number of confirmed cases was more than 4.7 million, with more than 300,000 people dead.<ref name=”WHOSitRep120_20”>{{cite web |url=https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200519-covid-19-sitrep-120.pdf |format=PDF |title=Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 120 |author=World Health Organization |publisher=World Health Organization |date=19 May 2020 |accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref>
  
 
Governmental reaction to the pandemic around the globe has varied significantly since the pandemic's declaration in March. Some of that variance can be seen when reviewing the various policies implemented by the world's governments. The International Monetary Fund's policy tracker for COVID-19 response, for example, paints a picture of the laboratory testing, social, transportation, trade, and financial situations of each country. Reviewing it shows that Kosovo, for example, has implemented citizen lockdowns, not allowing people to leave their homes for more than 1.5 hours per day. Other more comprehensive measures such as widespread testing and digital tracking, with fewer mobility restrictions, have allowed South Korea to virtually have their daily reported case numbers shrink to less than 15. After strict stay-at-home rules, complete with enforcement, Austria has been able to gradually reopen its operations as of mid-April while also supporting citizens through debt servicing delays, financial aid for the self-employed and micro-businesses, and prohibitions on banks from share buy-back.<ref name="IMFPolicy20">{{cite web |url=https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 |title=Policy Responses to COVID-19 |author=International Monetary Fund |publisher=International Monetary Fund |date=24 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref> Another source for examining government reaction is through the collation of data on how governments have implemented technological tracking measures in the name of slowing the epidemic. Groups like Privacy International collate such information through their collective tracking project, which links to hundreds of news stories concerning the forced sharing of mobile phone data, the use of drones and other surveillance for tracking and enforcing quarantines, geolocation tracking though phones, and the implementation of facial recognition technology.<ref name="PITracking20">{{cite web |url=https://privacyinternational.org/examples/tracking-global-response-covid-19 |title=Tracking the Global Response to COVID-19 |author=Privacy International |publisher=Privacy International |date=21 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref> The U.S. Chamber of Commerce also collects a dashboard of governmental policies for comparison.<ref name="CoCGlobal20">{{cite web |url=https://www.uschamber.com/international-affairs-division/covid-dashboard |title=Global Dashboard on COVID-19 Government Policies |author=U.S. Chamber of Commerce |publisher=U.S. Chamber of Commerce |date=24 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref>
 
Governmental reaction to the pandemic around the globe has varied significantly since the pandemic's declaration in March. Some of that variance can be seen when reviewing the various policies implemented by the world's governments. The International Monetary Fund's policy tracker for COVID-19 response, for example, paints a picture of the laboratory testing, social, transportation, trade, and financial situations of each country. Reviewing it shows that Kosovo, for example, has implemented citizen lockdowns, not allowing people to leave their homes for more than 1.5 hours per day. Other more comprehensive measures such as widespread testing and digital tracking, with fewer mobility restrictions, have allowed South Korea to virtually have their daily reported case numbers shrink to less than 15. After strict stay-at-home rules, complete with enforcement, Austria has been able to gradually reopen its operations as of mid-April while also supporting citizens through debt servicing delays, financial aid for the self-employed and micro-businesses, and prohibitions on banks from share buy-back.<ref name="IMFPolicy20">{{cite web |url=https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 |title=Policy Responses to COVID-19 |author=International Monetary Fund |publisher=International Monetary Fund |date=24 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref> Another source for examining government reaction is through the collation of data on how governments have implemented technological tracking measures in the name of slowing the epidemic. Groups like Privacy International collate such information through their collective tracking project, which links to hundreds of news stories concerning the forced sharing of mobile phone data, the use of drones and other surveillance for tracking and enforcing quarantines, geolocation tracking though phones, and the implementation of facial recognition technology.<ref name="PITracking20">{{cite web |url=https://privacyinternational.org/examples/tracking-global-response-covid-19 |title=Tracking the Global Response to COVID-19 |author=Privacy International |publisher=Privacy International |date=21 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref> The U.S. Chamber of Commerce also collects a dashboard of governmental policies for comparison.<ref name="CoCGlobal20">{{cite web |url=https://www.uschamber.com/international-affairs-division/covid-dashboard |title=Global Dashboard on COVID-19 Government Policies |author=U.S. Chamber of Commerce |publisher=U.S. Chamber of Commerce |date=24 April 2020 |accessdate=25 April 2020}}</ref>

Latest revision as of 16:23, 20 May 2020

1.2 COVID-19: History and impact (so far)

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, typically yielding symptoms of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and loss of taste or smell.[1] A majority of cases yield relatively mild symptoms, but some progress to life-threatening situations involving pneumonia, organ failure, and cardiovascular complication.[2][3]

The first known case of COVID-19 dates back to November 2019, "according to government data seen by the South China Morning Post."[4] By the middle of December, infections were at 27, and by the end of the year the number was 266.[4] By that time, Chinese health authorities had been updated that the pneumonia-like symptoms of patients in China's Hubei province may have been the symptoms of a disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus[4], and the WHO was notified.[5] At the start of 2020, that number grew to 381 known cases[4], jumping to more than 7,700 confirmed and 12,000 suspected cases by the end of January.[6] By that time, the WHO had convened a second meeting of its Emergency Committee to discuss the declaration of a PHEIC, saying the then-called "2019-nCoV" constituted a health emergency of international concern.[6] This spurred the publishing of WHO technical advice to other countries, with a focus on "reducing human infection, prevention of secondary transmission and international spread, and contributing to the international response."[6] However, at the same time, the virus was already beginning to spread in locations such as Australia[7], France[8], Germany[9] Italy[10], Japan[11], South Korea[12], Spain[13], the United Kingdom[14], and the United States.[15]

As the disease continued to spread in February, naming conventions came together, with the WHO declaring the disease's name "COVID-19," short for "coronavirus disease 2019."[16][17] By the end of the month, the WHO warned a "very high" likelihood the virus's spread could turn into a full pandemic.[18] Less than two weeks later, on March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, noting more than 118,000 confirmed cases and 4,000 deaths on all continents except Antarctica.[19] As of May 19, the number of confirmed cases was more than 4.7 million, with more than 300,000 people dead.[20]

Governmental reaction to the pandemic around the globe has varied significantly since the pandemic's declaration in March. Some of that variance can be seen when reviewing the various policies implemented by the world's governments. The International Monetary Fund's policy tracker for COVID-19 response, for example, paints a picture of the laboratory testing, social, transportation, trade, and financial situations of each country. Reviewing it shows that Kosovo, for example, has implemented citizen lockdowns, not allowing people to leave their homes for more than 1.5 hours per day. Other more comprehensive measures such as widespread testing and digital tracking, with fewer mobility restrictions, have allowed South Korea to virtually have their daily reported case numbers shrink to less than 15. After strict stay-at-home rules, complete with enforcement, Austria has been able to gradually reopen its operations as of mid-April while also supporting citizens through debt servicing delays, financial aid for the self-employed and micro-businesses, and prohibitions on banks from share buy-back.[21] Another source for examining government reaction is through the collation of data on how governments have implemented technological tracking measures in the name of slowing the epidemic. Groups like Privacy International collate such information through their collective tracking project, which links to hundreds of news stories concerning the forced sharing of mobile phone data, the use of drones and other surveillance for tracking and enforcing quarantines, geolocation tracking though phones, and the implementation of facial recognition technology.[22] The U.S. Chamber of Commerce also collects a dashboard of governmental policies for comparison.[23]

Citizen reaction to the pandemic has also varied. Local governments in China have been criticized[24][25], while the central government has, at least at times, been seen in positive light for its handling of the pandemic.[26][27][28] Some Indians have criticized their government for its police brutality during lockdowns[29], while some Italians have criticized their government for trivializing the situation for too long.[30] In the U.S.—and in other parts of the world—criticism has been rampant concerning the United States government's response[31][32][33][34], though some governors have received praise for standing up for their state's citizens.[35][36][37]

It's too early to truly quantitatively (or qualitatively) measure the impact of COVID-19 on the world, let alone the United States. But the effects of the virus are taking shape, from significant job losses[38] and bankruptcies[39], to poor mental health impacts[40] and postponed cancer surgeries.[41] What has long been known and remains true, however, is that beyond preventative measures, in order to further limit the negative consequences of the pandemic, testing must be expanded.[42][43]
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (20 March 2020). "Symptoms of Coronavirus". Centers for Disease Control and Preventions. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html. Retrieved 01 May 2020. 
  2. Wadman, M.; Couzin-Frankel, J.; Kaiser, J. et al. (17 April 2020). "How does coronavirus kill? Clinicians trace a ferocious rampage through the body, from brain to toes". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abc3208. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/how-does-coronavirus-kill-clinicians-trace-ferocious-rampage-through-body-brain-toes. Retrieved 01 May 2020. 
  3. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2020). "The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China". Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 41 (2): 145–51. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003. PMID 32064853. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Ma, J. (13 March 2020). "Coronavirus: China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3074991/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  5. Hui, D.S.; Azhar, E.I.; Madani, T.A. et al. (2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". International Journal of Infectious Diseases 91: 264–66. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID 31953166. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 World Health Organization (30 January 2020). "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov). Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  7. Hunt, G. (25 January 2020). "First confirmed case of novel coronavirus in Australia". Australian Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/first-confirmed-case-of-novel-coronavirus-in-australia. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  8. Jacob, E. (24 January 2020). "Coronavirus: trois premiers cas confirmés en France, deux d’entre eux vont bien". Le Figaro. https://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/coronavirus-trois-premiers-cas-confirmes-en-france-20200124. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  9. Der Spiegel (28 January 2020). "Bayerische Behörden bestätigen ersten Fall in Deutschland". https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/corona-virus-erster-fall-in-deutschland-bestaetigt-a-19843b8d-8694-451f-baf7-0189d3356f99. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  10. Severgnini, C. (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus, primi due casi in Italia «Sono due cinesi in vacanza a Roma» Sono arrivati a Milano il 23 gennaio". Corriere della Sera. https://www.corriere.it/cronache/20_gennaio_30/coronavirus-italia-corona-9d6dc436-4343-11ea-bdc8-faf1f56f19b7.shtml. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
  11. Sim, W. (16 January 2020). "Japan confirms first case of infection from Wuhan coronavirus; Vietnam quarantines two tourists". The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/japan-confirms-first-case-of-infection-with-new-china-coronavirus. Retrieved 31 March 2020. 
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