User:Shawndouglas/sandbox/sublevel7

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A

Absorption: As a broad term, "absorption" is the process of one thing to take in another thing, be it in a gradual, natural way or in a more rapid, contrived way.[1] As a laboratory test, this may vary based upon what is being analyzed. Examples include the D-xylose absorption test which determines how well a simple sugar is absorbed by the intestines[2], water absorption tests for soil and rock[3], and a 24-hour water absorption test for polymers and plastics.[4]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, calibration and standards, chemical, clinical care, clinical and academic research, cosmetic, environmental, food and beverage, geology and mining, life sciences and biotechnology, logistics, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Accelerated stress test: Intertek defines this test as a process that "simulates 'real-life' conditions to provide necessary evaluation data that helps ensure a product’s life and reliability."[5] This sort of testing is useful for the development and improvement of energy storage systems[6], electronic parts, and other materials. An even more intensive version of this test is the highly accelerated stress test (HAST).[7][8]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, energy, logistics, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Acceleration: The process of moving faster or increasing in rate of occurrence, though from a physics standpoint, it's a measure of velocity change over a period of time (a = Δv / Δt).[9] In the world of laboratory testing, an acceleration test may refer to either a pure measurement of acceleration of a moving object, or it may refer to how objects react to acceleration forces, often over extended periods of time.[10][11] Of course, calibration labs may test a device like an accelerometer to ensure it's measuring acceleration accurately.[12]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, calibration and standards, manufacturing and R&D

Acid and base number: Acid number (AN) and base number (BN) are measurements of acidity and basicity of nonaqueous solutions.[13][14] The acid number and base number tests are utilized most frequently in the petrochemical industry. This test differs from the pH test in that it measures the "concentration of acidic and alkaline constituents" rather than corrosive strength.[13]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, petrochemical

Acoustic startle: This reflex test is a measure of sensorimotor performance in animals and humans, often for research purposes. The measurement of muscle contractions and/or higher level brain signals upon engagement of the test can provide valuable data in assessing developmental or human anxiety disorders.[15][16]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research

Acoustical: Acoustical testing is a broad range of testing that gauges various aspects of how materials transmit, reflect, absorb, and reduce acoustic phenomena.[17][18]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, calibration and standards, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Active ingredient: An active ingredient is the substance(s) in a pharmaceutical or nutraceutical that provides beneficial or adverse effects to an organism. In the laboratory world, quality assurance policies, legal regulations, and safety requirements demand active ingredients be tested for potency, efficacy, and proper formulation.[19] Aside from pharmaceuticals, active ingredient testing may also extend to areas such as disinfectants and sanitizers.[20]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: food and beverage, pharmaceutical

Acute contact: Acute contact — or sometimes "acute contact toxicity" — testing involves the application of a test substance to an organism (typically on the body surface) and thereafter the observance of any adverse effects that occur over a set period of time. In the agricultural and environmental sciences, much attention has been given to acute contact testing in bee colonies[21][22], whereas clinical and chemistry contexts focus on areas such as human dermatological reactions.[23]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemistry, clinical and academic research, environmental, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Acute oral: Acute oral — or sometimes "acute oral toxicity" — testing is similar to acute contact, with the difference being the test substance is ingested by or injected into the organism.[24][25]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemistry, clinical and academic research, environmental, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Acute toxicity: See "acute contact" and "acute oral"

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemistry, clinical and academic research, environmental, manufacturing and R&D, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Adhesion: Adhesion is the state or ability of an object to stay fastened or attached to another, or on a molecular level the attraction exerted between contacting body surfaces.[1] A broad sub-series of tests may be involved when testing the adhesive qualities of a substance, including tear resistance, elongation, and viscosity. An R&D lab for example test a pressure-sensitive tape for shear and peel adhesion.[26] Adhesion can also be studied at the molecular level, including among biological cells, important to understanding pathological processes such as cancerous growth and inflammation.[27][28]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, clinical and academic research, life science and biotechnology, manufacturing and R&D

Age determination: Scientists, researchers, and forensic investigators have various reasons for needing to determine the age of organisms, remains, and manufactured items. Archeologists and other historical researchers turn to radiocarbon dating and thermoluminescence testing to determine the age of remains and supposed antiquities.[29] Forensic investigators turn to chromatographic and infrared methods for ink dating and may even turn to DNA analysis techniques to determine the age of an individual associated with a blood or bone sample.[30][31][32]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, geology and mining, law enforcement and forensics, life science and biotechnology

Aging: From a manufacturing perspective, aging tests — sometimes referred to as accelerated aging or in specific cases shelf life tests — allow researchers and QA personnel to see how an item physically and/or chemically degrades under certain conditions (varying pressures, temperatures, humidity levels, etc.) over time. Practical laboratory examples include testing packaging for sterilized medical devices[33] and solar generation platforms going into space.[34] Tangentially related are tests associated with aging research, including cognitive and anti-aging blood tests.

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, energy, life science and biotechnology, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Alcohol level: This test is used to determine the existence of alcohol (ethanol) in and/or alcohol concentration of a product (food, drink, pharmaceutical, etc.) or biological specimen (urine, blood, sweat, etc.).[35][36][37]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical care, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Allergy: Organisms can have allergic reactions (conditions caused by immune system hypersensitivity) to a wide variety of products, and thus both an organism and a product may receive some sort of allergy testing. On the clinical side, testing advances such as Phadia's ImmunoCAP blood test allows medical providers to test a patient for just about any causative allergen.[38] In other industries, testing for the presence of gluten, soybean, egg, fish, peanut as well as some chemicals, preservatives, etc. in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals is commonplace.[39][40]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, clinical care, cosmetic, environmental, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Altitude: Not only do aircraft components need to perform reliably under the pressure, temperature, humidity differences of working at higher altitudes[41]; any product being transported at higher altitudes by air and ground needs packaging that can consistently protect it.[42] As such, aviation components, food packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, and other related products must undergo altitude testing — including reduced pressure testing, decompression testing, and temperature/humidity testing — to ensure safety and product integrity.[41][43][44]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Amino acid analysis: Amino acids are a primary component of proteins and are responsible for growth, tissue repair, and other important bodily functions. Therefor, testing methods that determine the amino acid content of raw and processed foods, (bio)pharmaceutical ingredients, physiological fluids, etc. are vital for making more nutritious food, providing safer pharmaceuticals, and developing better clinical outcomes.[45][46][47] Amino acid testing has even been used to determine the gender associated with a set of fingerprints.[48]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemical, clinical care, clinical and academic research, food and beverage, law enforcement and forensics, life science and biotechnology, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Angle of repose: Copley Scientific defines angle of repose as "the angle (relative to the horizontal base) of the conical pile produced when a granular material is poured on to a horizontal surface," and they state that the defining characteristics are largely based on the material's density, surface area, and coefficient of friction.[49] This test has practical use in pharmaceuticals for operations such as blending, tablet compression, and capsule filling[50], and it's useful in geology, mining, and geophysical research.[51][52]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, geology and mining, pharmaceutical

Aniline point: Aniline is a prototypical, industrially produced liquid and aromatic amine that is used in the production of foams, dyes, antioxidants, and varnishes.[53] This substance is used in combination with an oil to test its aniline point, which Fann Instrument Company defines as the "lowest temperature at which equal volumes of fresh aniline and an oil are completely miscible."[54] This test is largely used by the petrochemical industry to, for example, determine the best drilling fluid to minimize degradation of rubber components on a drilling rig.[54]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Anion: Cornerstone Analytical Laboratories defines an anions as "single atom or polyatomic species that have an overall negative charge."[55] An anion test would largely be used to detect and identify the constituent anions of a known or unknown mixture or sample type, often from public water systems, rivers, and industrial runoff.[56][57]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, environmental, power and utility

Antigen: An antigen is a protein attached to the cell surface of an infectious organism. Antigen's counterpart, the antibody, is created by the immune system to combat the infectious organism, with an antibody appearing for each type of antigen. As such, an antigen test allows clinicians and researchers to test a biological sample to see if an antibody is present, and thus if an infectious organism is present.[58]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical care, clinical and academic research, life science and biotechnology

Antimicrobial: An antimicrobial is a substance that destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms.[59] An antimicrobial's efficacy and safety must be tested to meet regulatory audits and international standards, thus their testing. Antibiotics, textiles, insulation materials, adhesive films, disinfectants, sanitizers, and even paints are likely to receive one or more antimicrobial tests using a set of highly standardized methods.[60][61] Of course, plenty of laboratory research is also going into the effects of antimicrobial use on humans, animals, and their environment.[62][63]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemical, clinical and academic research, clinical care, cosmetic, environmental, life science and biotechnology, pharmaceutical, power and utility, veterinary

API gravity: The API gravity test is a staple to the petrochemical lab, measuring the density of a petroleum liquid relative to that of water. Petroleum samples with an API below that of water (10°) are heavier than water and sink (an extra heavy oil).[64][65]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Artificial pollution: The artificial pollution test is a niche laboratory test performed on outdoor insulators used in power transmission and management. Salt particles from ocean spray, dust, fertilizers, industrial pollution, bird droppings, and fly ash can all collect on insulators, negatively impacting their long-term effectiveness. As such, characteristics such as wettability class, flashover voltage, equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) are used to test ceramic and silicone insulators for how they hold up to environmental pollutants over time.[66][67][68]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Ash: An ash or ash content test involves weighing and then heating/incinerating a sample in a crucible, then weighing and examining the resulting ash residue. (Other types of ashing methods may be applied to food and other samples.) Any mineral content that remains — calcium carbonate, glass fiber, lead, mercury, potassium, talc, etc. — can be identified for reverse engineering purposes, for painting a clearer picture of how the sample will react to external variables, or for supporting nutritional labeling requirements.[69][70][71][72]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D

Atterberg limits: This test determines several key aspects of a fine-grained soil and its critical water content, particularly as it changes from a liquid (liquid limit) to plastic (plastic limit) to solid (shrinkage limit) state. This information is useful to construction and mining activities, as well as agricultural activities.[73][74]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, environmental, geology and mining

B

Basic sediment and water: Sometimes abbreviated as "BS&W," this test is found in petrochemical laboratories that need to determine the amount of sediment and water in their crude oil stream or even their used lubricating oil. Governed by several standardized methods, this test is commonly performed with the centrifuge method, though titration methods are also used. This testing is useful for custody transfers and monitoring produced water.[75][76]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Bioaccumulation: Merriam-Webster defines bioaccumulation as the gradual increase in quantity (or number) of a substance in a living organism.[77] Laboratories around the world measure bioaccumulation of chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, additives, and other materials (e.g., plastic particles) in plants, animals, and other living organisms to gain a better sense of the hazards human activity are placing on those organisms and the environment. Bioaccumulation is measured as concentration of a substance in air, soil, tissues, and plant material.[78][79][80]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, clinical care, environmental, geology and mining, veterinary

Bioavailability: Merriam-Webster defines this word as "the degree and rate at which a substance (such as a drug) is absorbed into a living system or is made available at the site of physiological activity."[81] As the definition suggests, bioavailability testing is largely a product of the pharmaceutical and associated clinical research field, though researchers conducting dietary and environmental research are also interested in this test.[82][83][84]

Plasma drug concentration over time or urinalysis methods are common in measuring bioavailability.[82]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, environmental, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Bioburden / Microbial enumeration: Mold & Bacteria Consulting Services defines this type of testing as "the enumeration and characterization of the population of viable aerobic microorganisms on or in a medical device, component, raw material, or package which has not been sterilized."[85] However, this definition can be expanded to testing of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional products, and more.[86] A standardized version of this test measures total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) and total yeast and mold count (TYMC), acting as quality control to ensure the safety of the item's end user and is often part of a regulatory mandate.[87]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, cosmetic, environmental, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical, power and utility, veterinary

Biocompatibility: Biomaterials, nanomaterials, medical devices, and even biological materials (such as someone else's blood) — when introduced to the body — are never a guarantee to integrate well. Safety evaluation studies, allergy tests, and toxicity tests are all a part of testing the biocompatibility of a material, ensuring it doesn't elicit a local or systemic response from living tissues and bodily systems.[88][89][90][91]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, cosmetic, manufacturing and R&D, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical

Biodegradation: Merriam-Webster defines biodegradation as the process of organic material breaking down into its constituents, especially by the actions of living organisms.[92] A wide variety of test methods have been used in industry laboratories to test biodegradation due to "[t]he great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants,"[93] including soil metabolism studies and seawater inoculum studies.[94][95]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, environmental, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical

Biomechanical: Biomechanics involves the scientific study of the relationships between an organisms biology and the way that it moves.[96] Biomechanical testing is needed in several cases, primarily in the development of biomaterials for prosthetics and other implants[97][98] but also in the analysis of living tissues such as bone and cartilage for disease assessment and treatment.[99]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, manufacturing and R&D

Biomolecular: Biomolecules — organic molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids in living organisms[100] — are important to many fields of science and industry. Many clinical and industrial applications require lab testing to properly identify biomolecules in or on a substance for diagnosis, research, and quality control purposes. Does a particular food contain a known allergen or pathogen?[101] Has someone been exposed to a toxic substance in the environment?[102] Biomolecular testing helps with these and other questions.

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, clinical and academic research, clinical care, food and beverage, law enforcement and forensics, life science and biotechnology

Biophysical profile: The biophysical profile (BPP) is a test performed typically in the last trimester of human pregnancy as a way to evaluate the overall health of the developing baby. It measures aspects such as heart rate, movement, breathing, and position.[103] The BPP can also be applied in the veterinarian sciences, for example with pregnant mares.[104]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical care, veterinary

Biosafety: Merriam-Webster defines biosafety as "safety with respect to the effects of biological research on humans and the environment."[105] This typically includes testing to ensure biologicals, raw materials, and final products are free from unintended viral agents and other contaminates.[106][107]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, clinical and academic research, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Blood culture: The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) describes a blood culture as a test "used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, and to guide treatment."[108] The test may be done in conjunction with a complete blood count (CBC), and it applies to both clinical and veterinary science.[108][109]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, veterinary

Blood gases: The AACC explains that a blood gas test is able to detect acid-base imbalances and gauge respiratory function as a way to diagnose conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney dysfunction.[110] Like the blood culture, the blood gases test is useful in both clinical and veterinary science.[110][109]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, veterinary

Blood typing: A blood type test determines the types of antigens attached to an organism's red blood cells so as to make identification of the most biocompatible blood type for transfusion purposes.[111] Like the previously mentioned blood tests, blood typing is useful in both clinical and veterinary science.[111][112]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical care, veterinary

Boiling, freezing, and melting point: While sometimes viewed as basic classroom learning exercises, determination of the boiling, freezing, and melting point of a substance remains useful in several industries. These tests allow laboratory scientists to not only identify the purity of a substance, but they also provide important knowledge in pharmaceutical formulation as well as correct labeling of material safety data sheets (MSDS).[113][114][115]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, pharmaceutical

C

C- and N-terminal: This type of testing involves looking at the carboxylic groups (C) and amine groups (N) associated with an amino acid. It's used as an identification tool as well as a quality control and reporting requirement tool for pharmaceutical researchers.[116][117]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: life science and biotechnology, pharmaceutical

Calorimetry: Calorimetry measures the heat or energy change of a chemical or physical process in a system. This measurement can then be used to better tailor a diet to an individual[118], test energy expenditure in research mice[119], or even to characterize an energy storage system such as lithium-ion battery.[120] It can even be used to guide process safety and hazard assessment.[121]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, energy, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, veterinary

Capillary and gel electrophoresis: Electrophoresis involves the movement of suspended particles through a specific medium while the medium has an electromotive force applied to it.[122] Thyrocare Technologies notes that more traditional use of this technique was found "in the field of research for analysis of genetic material as well as proteins" but that in modern times it's seen more diagnostic use for analysis of blood, urine, and other protein-containing biological samples.[123][124] Capillary and gel techniques allow for the determination of a protein's isoelectric point or its molecular weight and purity, for example, in biopharmaceutical production.[125][126]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, life science and biotechnology, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical

Carbon-hydrogen ratio: The carbon-hydrogen test is used in the mining and petrochemical industries to classify coal and petrochemical types and provides a way to determine the processing potential and yields of those hydrocarbons.[127][128]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: geology and mining, petrochemical

Carcinogenicity: Determining the carcinogenicity of a substance means determining its potential or risk to cause cancer.[129][130] Carcinogenicity testing is a type of toxicity testing[130] used to examine, among other items, pesticides and pharmaceuticals.[131][132]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemical, clinical and academic research, life science and biotechnology, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

Cargo analysis: This category of testing in reality covers a broad range of different tests associated with monitoring, securing, and improving cargo and its transport. Laboratories that offer laboratory-based cargo analysis are, among other activities, ensuring the contents of a cargo meet contractual specifications (as in petroleum) or providing contamination analysis of shipped goods.[133][134]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: logistics, petrochemical

Case depth: Also known as "case depth hardness," case depth is a measurement of the thickness of a hardened layer on a sample, usually a manufactured component. According to AMETEK, "[t]he characteristics of case hardening are primarily determined by surface hardness, the effective hardness depth, and the depth profile of the residual stress" applied to the sample.[135][136]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aeronautical, manufacturing and R&D

Cetane: ASTM states that "cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression ignition engines."[137] Additional test calculations such as cetane index and derived cetane number apply in testing laboratories to not only diesel fuel but also gasoil, biodiesel, and several other fuels, providing a clearer picture of fuel quality.[138][139]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Characterization: Broadly speaking, characterization is a general process of detailing the characteristics of a test material or system through a series of tests and tools, and this process can be applied in numerous fields and industries. In chemistry, molecular characterization can be part of chemical analysis, trace analysis, and microscopic testing of a sample to identify and describe it.[140][141] The R&D departments of numerous industries turn to characterization testing of manufacturing materials in their labs, including metallographic services, micro- and macrohardness testing, spectral sensitivity testing, and more.[142][34] Even fiber optic systems require characterization testing using unique equipment.[143]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, energy, geology and mining, manufacturing and R&D, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical, veterinary

Chemical and materials compatibility: ELTEK Labs describes compatibility — within the laboratory testing domain — as one of several scenarios: how one or more materials holds up in varying environments, how two or more materials hold up in a standardized environment, or how one material holds up within another material.[144] Examples include how the internal components of a dish washing machine hold up to certain detergents[144], how plastics resist chemical reagents[145], how an aviation component withstands aviation fuel[146], and how a medical device reacts to disinfectants.[147]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical

Chemical and biochemical oxygen demand: These two tests, often abbreviated COD and BOD, are used to test wastewater streams for their potential effect on the environment. Both tests measure the oxygen required for "aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample."[148] A high level would indicate reduced levels of dissolved oxygen, which leads to anaerobic conditions in an aquatic environment. The test methods between the two are slightly different, however, with COD having a slight advantage for its considerably shorter testing time.[148][149]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: environmental, power and utility

Circular dichroism: "Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measures differences in the absorption of left-handed polarized light versus right-handed polarized light which arise due to structural asymmetry," says Alliance Protein Laboratories.[150] This test method is good for determining the structural status of a protein, comparing proteins, enacting comparability protocols, and studying protein stability. CD is used primarily in pharmaceutical development as a means for determining purity, performing quantitative analysis, and meeting ICH requirements on physicochemical profiling of pharmaceuticals.[150][151]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: life science and biotechnology, pharmaceutical

Cleanliness: When manufacturers create a product, most have to be cognizant of the potential problems caused by product contamination, particularly those manufacturers working with components and constituents that must remain ultra-clean. Contaminates can reduce the life span of cooling systems, fluid handling systems, circuit boards, and metal parts, among others. Cleanliness testing is a type of quality control testing that helps improve performance reliability and brand reputation. Surface residue isolation and measurement, rinse water sampling, and microbiological contamination testing all play a role in cleanliness testing.[152][153][154]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical, power and utility

Climatics: Also known as environmental simulation testing, climatic testing "usually involves creating artificial environments for test items to determine their expected resilience to their anticipated environments."[155] Factors such as airborne particulate, moisture, pressure, solar radiation, temperature, and wind in any combination may be tested to ensure systems, subsystems, and components can withstand real-life conditions reliably over a recommended period of time.[156] As such, a wide breadth of subtests encompass climatic testing, each simulating an environmental condition for a sample, with laboratorians then observing the results on the sample via analytical means.[157]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, energy, logistics, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Cloud point: This petrochemical test is a measurement of "the temperature of a liquid specimen when the smallest observable cluster of hydrocarbon crystals (first) occurs upon cooling under prescribed conditions."[158] These "wax" crystals have the potential to block filters and fuel systems if not properly accommodated for.[159]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Combustion: Combustion testing could refer to 1. combustion analysis, which is used to determine the constituents of a compound, alloy, or some other substance[160]; 2. engine combustion testing, used to develop, optimize, and/or quality check combustion engines[161]; or 3. combustion testing of nozzles, burners, and spraybars, which involves the evaluation of ignition, flame stability, spray angle, and other characteristics of those parts.[162] The intended results of this testing include improved fuel economy, reduced pollutant levels, and improved equipment safety.[163]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, energy, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical

Compaction: Compaction testing is essentially is the development of a porosity profile of a sediment under load. As a sediment is compacted, particles are more efficiently packed, reducing the available space for water to fill. Concrete, construction materials, soils, and aggregates can all be tested for compaction by a laboratory.[164][165]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: geology and mining, manufacturing and R&D

Comparative Tracking Index: Abbreviated as CTI, this test measures the relative resistance of an insulating material to electrical breakdown, a point where it stops acting like an insulator and more like a conductor. One testing method for CTI describes it as the "highest voltage at which no test specimens fail during tests."[166][167]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Comparison: Comparison testing is simply the comparison of one or more developmental and marketed products with another, usually competing product.[168] A more sophisticated example from 2010 had researchers comparison testing Korean cosmetics using a European-style patch test with the results of European cosmetics under the same patch test, discovering certain antigens in Korean cosmetics were absent from the European test protocol.[169]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: cosmetic, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D

Compendial: Avomeen Analytical states the following about compendial testing: "Compendial monograph (pharmacopeial) tests are standardized methods and specification testing for generic pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products. They are utilized as a basic requirement needed for most regulatory submissions around the world."[170]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, pharmaceutical

Complete blood count: This test (referred to as a CBC) is a clinical screening test that covers a broad base of cells and associated variables, used as a diagnostic tool for an individual's health status. It evaluates white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in a blood sample. It can also be used as a monitoring tool to track the progress of an individual's disease. The test applies to both clinical and veterinary labs.[171][172]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, clinical care, veterinary

Compliance/Conformance: TechTarget defines compliance/conformance testing as "a methodology used in engineering to ensure that a product, process, computer program or system meets a defined set of standards."[173] This sort of testing is a vital quality control step for just about every manufacturer and laboratory required to operate under certain standards and laws. The actual subtests associated with compliance testing will be as diverse as the industries they are performed in.

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, automotive and aerospace, chemical, clinical care, cosmetic, food and beverage, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, power and utility, veterinary

Composition: This test is largely an identification test in non-clinical laboratories. When a metal, chemical, or other material is of unknown origin or needs to be compared to a similar item for differences, labs turn to composition analysis. It's also used to confirm suspicions of toxic ingredients or contaminants in a sample.[174][175] In clinical contexts, a composition test may refer to body composition testing, which includes body fat and muscle composition, bone density, and metabolic rate, among others.[176]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemical, clinical care, cosmetic, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, pharmaceutical

Compression: TestResources, Inc. describes a compression test as "any test in which a material experiences opposing forces that push inward upon the specimen from opposite sides or is otherwise compressed, 'squashed,' crushed, or flattened" with the purpose of determining "whether or not the material is suited for specific applications or if it will fail under the specified stresses."[177] The compression test is also used in geology to determine the compressive strength of a rock.[178] Additionally, associated instruments that test compression will at times require force calibration from a calibration lab.[179]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, calibration and standards, geology and mining, life science and biotechnology, manufacturing and R&D, power and utility

Conductivity: Merriam-Webster defines conductivity as "the ability to move heat or electricity from one place to another."[180] Test methods for thermal and electrical conductivity will vary based upon material type, expected conductivity, and the dimensions of the material. Metals, polymers, liquids, and even soil can be tested for conductivity with the goal of determining resistivity, insulative quality, or, in the case of soils, quantity of nutrients available.[181][182][183]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, automotive and aerospace, chemical, environmental, geology and mining, petrochemical

Congealing point: The World Health Organization's sixth edition of The International Pharmacopoeia defines the congealing point of a liquid or melted solid as "the highest temperature at which it solidifies."[184] The WHO[184], the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention[185], and ASTM[186] all describe test methods for measuring congealing point.

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical

Conradson Carbon Residue: According to ASTM International, the CCR test is used to determine "the amount of carbon residue ... left after evaporation and pyrolysis of an oil, and is intended to provide some indication of relative coke-forming propensities."[187] Several laboratory devices have been built specifically for CCR and are used in the petrochemical and construction industries.[188][189]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: petrochemical

Consolidation: Gopal Mishra's The Constructor describes consolidation testing as follows: "Consolidation of a saturated soil occurs due to expulsion of water under static, sustained load. The consolidation characteristics of soils are required to predict the magnitude and the rate of settlement."[190] With this information, civil engineers can make a more informed decision about a project's design criteria and improve a structure's longevity.[191]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, environmental, geology and mining

Contact mechanics: Contact mechanics is, broadly speaking, the study of how a solids deform at one or more points upon contact.[192] The associated sub-tests are primarily used in R&D to better understand the phenomena and improve designs of items such as structural supports and hydraulic components.[193][194]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, energy, manufacturing and R&D

Contamination: Merriam-Webster describes contamination as the introduction of something unwholesome or undesirable that makes a medium impure or unfit for use.[1] In the scope of laboratories, contamination testing can thus cover a wide spectrum of contaminates, from heavy metals and toxic chemicals to a mold, mycotoxin, or bacteria. With each contaminate is associated a specific set of test criteria; as such, "contamination testing" is an overly broad term that often requires further clarification based upon contaminate. These tests are done to, for example, determine what's causing discoloration, a foreign odor, or unwanted haze or residue.[195]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, chemical, cosmetic, energy, environmental, food and beverage, logistics, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, pharmaceutical

Corrosion: Corrosion is a weakening, "electrochemical process of oxidation and reduction reactions," and electrochemical test methods "can be used to characterize the corrosion properties of metals and metal components in combination with various electrolyte solutions."[196] Corrosion testing helps design better products and understand corrosive forces as environmental conditions change. It's used in various ways, from analyzing finished medical devices for corrosion susceptibility to designing better HVAC systems.[196][197]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: automotive and aerospace, chemical, logistics, manufacturing and R&D, petrochemical, power and utility

Counterfeit detection: Profit potential, electronic waste chains, and weak legislation can all play a role in the creation of counterfeit products, which are often inferior or even dangerous for the end user. Counterfeit detection testing is largely a product of enforcement and regulatory activities. A wide variety of conventional and unconventional screening techniques are used to detect counterfeit drugs, electronic components, and clothing among other items.[198][199]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: law enforcement and forensics, logistics

Cross-drive: Cross-drive analysis is a digital forensic technique and inference process that attempts to correlate information across multiple computer disks or data servers.[200]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: law enforcement and forensics

Current and current switching: This collection of high-power tests are used in the power and utility industry to design better current switching hardware in power generation and distribution systems. Testing is typically performed as part of research and development, as part of acceptance testing, and as part of test-type certification. Test examples include capacitive, induced, bus transfer, and small inductive current switching tests, as well as short-time and peak withstand current tests.[201][202]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: power and utility

Cytology and cytopathology: When referring to laboratory testing, these terms are used broadly to describe one or more specific tests used to look for lesions and diseases at the cellular level. These tests may be used to diagnose a disease when symptoms are present or screen an individual for likelihood of developing or carrying a disease, even when symptoms aren't present. The Pap test is a common test used to detect abnormalities in a woman's cervical cells. Fluids such as urine, sputum, and pleural fluid may also be tested.[203][204]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, clinical and academic research, clinical care, life science and biotechnology, veterinary

Cytotoxicity: This type of testing is used frequently in medical device and pharmaceutical R&D (as well as clinical research) to assess the biocompatibility (i.e., toxicity or irritancy potential) of a material, raw ingredient, or compound. Testing is either qualitative or quantitative and may be performed in conjunction with sensitization assays to determine allergic or hypersensitivity responses.[205][206]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: clinical and academic research, manufacturing and R&D, pharmaceutical

D

De novo protein:

Damage tolerance:

Decomposition:

Deformulation:

Degradation:

Density:

Design verification testing:

Detection:

Developmental and reproductive toxicology:

Dielectric withstand:

Dietary exposure:

Dimensional:

Discoloration:

Disintegration:

Dissolution:

Dissolved gas:

Disulfide bridge:

Doctor test:

Drop:

Dynamics:

E

Ecotoxicology:

Edge crush:

Efficacy:

Efficiency:

Electrolyte and mineral panel:

Electromagnetic compatibility:

Electromagnetic interference:

Electrophoresis:

Electrostatic discharge:

Elongation:

Endocrine disruptor screening program:

Endotoxin:

Endurance:

Environmental fate:

Environmental metabolism:

Environmental stress-cracking resistance:

Ergonomics:

Etching:

Expiration dating:

Evaporation loss:

Extractables and leachables:

F

Failure:

Fatigue:

Fault simulation:

Feasibility:

File carving:

Fire debris analysis:

Flammability:

Flash point:

Flavor:

Fluid dynamics:

Fluorescence:

Formulation:

Fragrance:

Freight flow:

Friability:

Friction:

Functional:

Functional observational battery:

G

Genetic:

Genotoxicity:

Genotype:

Geochemistry:

Geophysics:

Geothermal:

GMO detection:

Grain and particle size:

Grindability:

Gunshot residue analysis:

H

HACCP:

Hazard analysis:

Heat resistance:

Heating value:

Hematocrit:

Hematotoxicity:

Hemoglobin:

Hydraulic:

Hydrocarbon group type:

Human factors:

Hydraulic conductivity:

I

Identification:

Immersion:

Immunoassay:

Immunofluorescence:

Immunohistochemistry:

Impact:

Impurity:

Incident analysis:

Incline impact:

Inclusion:

Induction motor fault:

Infectious disease:

Inflatability:

Ingredient:

Ingress:

Inhalation:

Integrity:

Internal arc:

Iodine value:

Irritation:

Isotope analysis:

Iterative:

J

K

Kauri-butanol value:

Kidney function:

L

Labeling:

Last-mile distribution:

Leak:

Learning and memory:

Lipid profile:

Liver function:

Load:

Locomotor activity:

Lot release:

Lightning:

Lubricity:

M

Macroetch:

Macro- and microstructure:

Mass:

Mechanical:

Mechanical durability:

Medical toxicology:

Metabolic:

Metallurgical analysis:

Microfluidics:

Minimum bactericidal concentration:

Minimum inhibitory concentration:

Mobility:

Moisture:

Mold, fungal, and mycotoxin:

Molecular weight:

Mutagenicity:

N

Nanoparticulate:

Neurotoxicity:

Nuclear density:

Nutritional:

O

Octane:

Optical testing:

Organic carbon:

Osmolality:

Osmolarity:

Out-of-phase making and breaking:

Oxidation reduction potential:

Oxidation stability:

P

Parasitic:

Partial discharge:

Passivation:

Pathogen:

Pathogenicity:

Penetration:

PDCAAS:

Peptide mapping:

Performance:

Permeability:

Peroxide value:

pH:

Pharmacokinetic:

Photometric:

Photostability:

Phototoxicity:

Physical:

Phytosanitary:

Plant metabolism:

Plating and coating evaluation:

Polarimetry:

Post-translational modification:

Pour point:

Power quality:

Preservative challenge:

Pressure:

Process safety:

Proficiency testing:

Protein analysis:

Protein characterization:

Purity:

Pyrogenicity:

Q

Qualification:

Quality control:

R

Radio interference voltage:

Radioactivity:

Radiochemistry:

Ramsbottom Carbon Residue:

Red blood cell count:

Reflectance:

Refractive index:

Reliability:

Resistance, capacitance, and inductance:

S

Safety:

Salt content:

Sanitation:

Saponification value:

Seismic:

Sensitization:

Sensory:

Shear:

Shelf life:

Shock:

Short-circuit withstand:

Short-line fault:

Smoke point:

Soil microflora:

Solar:

Solubility:

Specific gravity:

Specific rotation:

Spectral:

Sports performance:

Stability testing:

Sterility testing:

Stress:

Stress corrosion cracking:

Subchronic toxicity:

Sulfide:

Surface tension:

Surface topography:

T

Tear:

Temperature and humidity:

Temperature-rise:

Tensile:

Tension:

Terrestrial toxicology:

Thermal:

Thyroid function:

Torque:

Total viable count:

Toxicokinetic:

Traffic modeling and analysis:

Turbidity:

U

Ultraviolet:

Urine culture:

Usability:

V

Validation:

Vapor pressure:

Velocity and flow:

Verification:

Vibration:

Vigor and germination:

Virucidal efficacy:

Viscosity:

Visibility:

Voltage:

W

Water activity:

Weathering:

Wildlife toxicology: This broad category of testing involves the research and analysis of how aquatic, avian, and other wildlife species are affected by exposure to toxic substances. Through acute, feeding, field, and reproduction studies, researchers are gaining a better understanding of how toxins from insecticides, fungicides, etc. are metabolized, how they affect various bodily systems, and how they affect future generations.[207][208][209]

Industry lab(s) this test is typical to: agriculture and forestry, clinical and academic, environmental, veterinary

X, Y, Z

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